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Fit For A Prince, An 18th-19th Century Mughal Wootz Steel & Gold Dagger

A wonderful antique khanjar dagger with a solid steel hilt decorated with chisselled flower heads within an islamic geometric cartouche form pattern, with scrolling acanthus leaves and flowers at the ricasso of the wootz Damascus blade, overalid with fine gold koftgari. In the conservation workshop. The wootz blade is in the typical recurved form shape with an armour piercing tip. This antique weapon was employed by the Mughal effectively in its battles with the Safavid and Ottoman Empires. The arm was particularly adept at piercing the armor of enemy combatants.

Developed originally in India, wootz steel technology features a system of isolating micro carbides within a matrix of tempered martensite. The ancient metalwork specialist Herbert Maryon of the British Museum in London described the metal technique as: the undulations of the steel resemble a net across running water [the pattern] waved like watered silk it was mottled like the grains of yellow sand. With roots in the Tamil Nudu region of the sub-continent, the technology was considered the most effective in the world for maximizing armor piercing potential. The indigenous Indian population presented the invading armies of Alexander the Great with tribute ingots of wootz around 300 B.C. From there, the process was refined over time throughout the world in Damascus, Syria; continental Europe; and later Great Britain, where the process underpinned the Industrial Revolution that began in the 18th century. The Rajahs of India submitted tulwars, shamshirs, khanjars, in addition to other ancient swords and daggers manufactured with wootz to the International Exhibition of 1851 and 1862, whereby the pieces become coveted for the quality of their steel.

Code: 20674

2950.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Super, Original, ‘Wild West’ Period, Colt Single Action Army Revolver

6 Shot .44” Colt Army Single Action Percussion Revolver (matching serial numbers), round barrel stamped ADDRESS COL. SAML COLT NEW-YORK U.S. AMERICA, underlever rammer, frame stamped COLTS PATENT, stepped cylinder roll engraved with naval scene and COLTS PATENT, PATENTED SEPT 10TH 1850, brass trigger guard, iron grip strap, one piece wooden grip inlaid with home-made heart and diamond-shaped silver escutcheons prick engraved with owner’s initials J.T.B. The silver escutcheons are a super addition to this handsome revolver and add an invaluable addition by way of its provenance by the use of its owner in the wild West period. Although unlikely it might be interesting to research and see if one can find to whom the initials may refer to, there are other engravings which are difficult to decipher but also may reveal some intriguing potential to its history. The Colt single action army has one other fine attribute, in that it feels wonderful when held in the hand, so beautifully balanced and ergonomically designed, it really is a delight to hold, and there is no other revolver [apart from its cousin the Colt single action Navy] that feels quite like it.

This original 1860 model Colt Army 44 cal. revolver would be a most fine addition to, or start of, any collection of fine arms, a delightful revolver of American history, with a very strong spring action and average age wear.This is the largest percussion calibre of pistol made by Colt in the world renown 'Wild West' era, and one of the most popular types of Colt revolver of the Civil War, used by both combatant sides of the Union and the Confederacy. As the successor to the big Colt Dragoon, this sleek and handsome hogleg packed plenty of power but was easier to handle. Colt’s 1860 was used by the U.S. Cavalry, the Texas Rangers and General Ben McCulloch’s Texas Confederates, Wells Fargo detective James Hume, Mormon “Avenging Angel” Porter Rockwell, El Paso City Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire, the James brothers Jesse James and Frank James, Wes Hardin, Sam Bass and scores of good and bad men. A true icon of 19th century America and one of the most famous and best Colt revolvers of it's type ever made. It had the greatest stopping power, and was a very popular and highly effective pistol from the Civil War, and into the Wild West era. There were many, many world famous officers and cowboys who used this very form of revolver, and Jesse James was photographed wearing several of them which he captured in combat fighting for the Confederacy in 1864 with Quantrill's Raiders. It was favoured as a side arm by cavalry, infantry, and artillery troops.

Around 200,000 were manufactured from 1860 through 1873. Colt's biggest customer was the US Government with over 127,000 units being purchased and issued to the troops. The weapon was a single-action, six-shot weapon accurate up to 75 to 100 yards, where the fixed sights were typically set when manufactured. The rear sight was a notch in the hammer, clearly visible only when the revolver was cocked.

The Colt .44-calibre “Army" Model was one of the most widely used revolvers of the Civil War. It was the revolver of choice for officers, artillerymen, and cavalrymen. The Colt .44 had a six-shot, rotating cylinder. It fired a 0.454-inch diameter round lead ball, or a conical projectile, that was propelled by a 30 grain charge of black powder ignited by a brass percussion cap that was struck by the hammer. When fired, balls had a muzzle velocity of about 750 feet per second.
Barrel 8 inch barrel overall 13.75 inches long. Good condition, usual wear overall. Good tight action. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23465

3250.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A 'Tower of London' Brown Bess Musket, Napoleonic Wars Period Early India Pattern' & Bayonet

Probably the most famous military flintlock musket in the world today, and certainly one of the most historically important and desirable long guns of its type from the Napoleonic wars.

A typical Napoleonic Wars regiment of the line issue musket, Crown GR and Tower swan neck cock lock with government inspectors stamps, regulation brass mounts, iron ramrod, sling swivels and triangular socket bayonet stamped EX by G Salter & Co. This may be a mark for the Essex regiment, the 44th foot. Walnut stock with usual signs of combat use bruising etc as one can expect.The Brown Bess musket began its life almost 300 years ago, and it helped in creating one of the greatest trading empires the world has ever seen and, among other achievements, made the 'British Square' the almost undefeated form of infantry defence throughout the world. Made in four distinct patterns it originally started life as a 46 inch barrel musket called the Long Land or Ist pattern [Brown Bess]. Then in around 1768 the gun evolved and the barrel was shortened to 42 inches [as 46 was deemed unwieldy] and renamed the Short Land or 2nd pattern. Although the Long Land was made continually for another 20 years. With the onset of the Napoleonic Wars in the 1790s, the British Board of Ordnance found itself woefully short of the 250,000 muskets it would need to equip its forces. It managed to produce around 20,000 short land pattern muskets but this was simply not sufficient. At that time the British East India Company maintained it own troops and had contracted with makers to produce a simplified version of the Brown Bess musket with a 39-inch barrel and less ornate furniture and stock work. It was generally felt that the standard of these "India pattern" muskets was not up to the standard of the earlier Besses, but necessity required action so the authorities convinced Company officials to turn over their stores to the Crown. By 1797 the urgencies of war ultimately created the demise of the Short Pattern, and all manufacture was turned to building the more simple 'India' pattern. For the most part, the gun underwent few changes from its introduction until Waterloo, with the exception of the cock, which was altered from the traditional swan-neck style to a sturdier, reinforced version in around 1809. Barrel 39inch overall 54.75 inches long. Musket at present in the workshop being cleaned to remove cosmetic surface deposits [nicotine etc.] As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23466

2995.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Superb Original American Civil War Issue Colt Single Action Army Revolver, .44 Calibre.

6 Shot .44” Colt Army Single Action Percussion Revolver, matching serial numbers, manufactured in 1863, barrel stamped ADDRESS COL. SAMl COLT NEW-YORK U.S. AMERICA, underlever rammer, frame stamped COLTS PATENT, stepped cylinder roll engraved with naval scene and COLT PATENT No. 2340 PATENTED SEPT 10TH 1850, brass trigger guard, iron back strap one piece wooden grip struck with government inspector’s initials (indistinct). Barrel inspector stamped H during the time of inspector Major P.V. Hadler. This original 1860 model Colt Army 44 cal. revolver would be a most fine addition to, or start of, any collection of fine arms, a delightful revolver of American history, with a very strong spring action and average age wear. The Colt single action army has one other fine attribute, in that it feels wonderful when held in the hand, so beautifully balanced and ergonomically designed, it really is a delight to hold, and there is no other revolver [apart from its cousin the Colt single action Navy] that feels quite like it. The largest percussion calibre of pistol made by Colt in the Civil War and Wild West era, and one of the most popular revolvers of the war, used by both combatant sides of the Union and the Confederacy. As the successor to the big Colt Dragoon, this sleek and handsome hogleg packed plenty of power but was easier to handle. Colt’s 1860 was used by the U.S. Cavalry, the Texas Rangers and General Ben McCulloch’s Texas Confederates, Wells Fargo detective James Hume, Mormon “Avenging Angel” Porter Rockwell, El Paso City Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire, the James brothers Jesse James and Frank James, Wes Hardin, Sam Bass and scores of good and bad men. A true icon of 19th century America and one of the most famous and best Colt revolvers of it's type ever made. It had the greatest stopping power, and was a very popular and highly effective pistol from the Civil War, and into the Wild West era. There were many, many world famous officers and cowboys who used this very form of revolver, and Jesse James was photographed wearing several of them which he captured in combat fighting for the Confederacy in 1864 with Quantrill's Raiders. It was favoured as a side arm by cavalry, infantry, and artillery troops.

Around 200,000 were manufactured from 1860 through 1873. Colt's biggest customer was the US Government with over 127,000 units being purchased and issued to the troops. The weapon was a single-action, six-shot weapon accurate up to 75 to 100 yards, where the fixed sights were typically set when manufactured. The rear sight was a notch in the hammer, clearly visible only when the revolver was cocked.

The Colt .44-calibre “Army" Model was one of the most widely used revolvers of the Civil War. It was the revolver of choice for officers, artillerymen, and cavalrymen. The Colt .44 had a six-shot, rotating cylinder. It fired a 0.454-inch diameter round lead ball, or a conical projectile, that was propelled by a 30 grain charge of black powder ignited by a brass percussion cap that was struck by the hammer. When fired, balls had a muzzle velocity of about 750 feet per second. Barrel 20.2cms, overall 35cms. Good condition, some age wear . As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23464

3450.00 GBP


Shortlist item
Fabulous, Historical, Princely Rifle of the Counts von Stauffenberg, from the Family Armoury and Castle of Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, Chief Conspirator of the Attempted Assassination of Hitler in 1944, Featured in Valkyrie, Starring Tom Cruise

From the personal estate of Colonel Von Stauffenberg’s family, formerly housed in Col. Von Stauffenberg’s family castle, Schloss Greifenstein. This fabulous rifle was from the historic armoury of the beautiful castle, Schloss Greifenstein, near Heiligenstadt in Upper Franconia, seat of the von Schenk family, the Counts von Stauffenberg. Originally sold through Sotheby’s London, on the 10 July 2002
The castle came into the ownership of the Counts Schenk von Stauffenberg in 1691, it having been ceded to Prince-Bishop Marquard Sebastian Schenk von Stauffenberg, Bishop of Bamberg (1644-1695). Within recent history, last owned by the late Otto Philipp, Count von Stauffenberg, who died in 2015, and was the nephew to Colonel Claus and Berthold Schenk von Stauffenberg, the leaders of the failed plot to assassinate Hitler in July 1944.
Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, was brilliantly portrayed in the movie ‘Valkyrie’ by Tom Cruise some few recent years ago. It was the gripping, and true life historical story of the failed assassination attempt and coup against Adolf Hitler, and his beloved SS, that resulted in the colonel’s execution, along with thousands of his co-conspirators, including his brother Berthold Von Stauffenberg, who were despatched in the most unpleasant manner.

It was made for his [the Colonel’s] ancestor in around 1740. The Colonel stayed and lived in the castle for a period when he was not on military campaigns around war torn Europe, and Col Von Stauffenberg’s bronze bust is still displayed with deserved pride, within the castle. This rifle was for the use of all the counts Von Stauffenberg, including the executed colonel and his brother, for hunting on the family castle estate. It is truly of fabulous quality, and in superb condition. The Counts Schenk von Stauffenberg. This is a finest princely quality German flintlock sporting rifle that was bespoke commissioned in circa 1740, for count Von Stauffenberg. It has a half octagonal and half round swamped barrel, showing most attractive hand cut lands at the muzzle, half stocked, that is beautifully carved in the rococo florid Chinoiserie manner, it has a most beautiful polished steel lock that is stunningly and deeply, chisel engraved, with hounds, stag and rococo foliage against a punched ground, in the finest quality manner, with matching fully engraved brass mounts, including the buttcap with dragon and foliage, trigger guard with raised finger rest, pierced foliate sideplate with a grotesque mask. The stock is also carved with a side cheekpiece, and a horn tipped fore-end and sliding patch box. Barrel 101cms, overall 141cms. Preserved in most fine condition. Provenance: From the Armoury of the The Counts Schenk von Stauffenberg; Sotheby’s, 2002 Colonel Claus Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg was part of the failed bomb attempt on Hitler’s life 20th July 1944, and was executed by firing squad. Stauffenberg is ordered to assassinate both Hitler and Himmler at the Wolf's Lair. He persuades General Fellgiebel to cut off communications after the attempt. On July 15, 1944, Stauffenberg attends a strategy meeting at the Wolf's Lair with a bomb, but does not receive permission to proceed as Himmler is absent. Meanwhile, the Reserve Army is mobilized by Olbricht. Stauffenberg leaves with the bomb and the Reserve Army is ordered to stand down. Fromm threatens Olbricht and Stauffenberg that he will arrest them if they try to control the Reserve Army again; Stauffenberg berates the plotters for their indecisiveness and condemns Goerdeler. When Goerdeler demands that Stauffenberg be relieved, Beck informs him that the SS has issued a warrant for his arrest, and that he must leave the country immediately.

On July 20, 1944, Stauffenberg and his adjutant Lieutenant Haeften return to the Wolf's Lair. Due to the warm weather, the conference is being held in an open-window summer barrack, minimizing their bomb's potential effectiveness. Stauffenberg places the briefcase containing the bomb close to Hitler before leaving. Officer Heinz Brandt moves the case behind a table leg, inadvertently shielding Hitler. When the bomb explodes, Stauffenberg is certain that Hitler is dead and flees, managing to bluff his way past security checkpoints and returning to Berlin.

Olbricht refuses to mobilize the Reserve Army without confirmation that Hitler is dead – Colonel Von Quirnheim (one of the plotters) forges his signature and issues the orders. With Valkyrie underway, the plotters order the arrest of Nazi party leaders and SS officers, convincing lower officers that the Party and the SS are staging a coup, and soldiers begin to take control of the ministries. Rumors surface that Hitler survived the blast, but Stauffenberg dismisses them as SS propaganda. Having learned from Field Marshal Keitel that Hitler is still alive, Fromm refuses to join the plotters, resulting in them detaining him.

Major Otto Ernst Remer of the Reserve Army prepares to arrest Goebbels, but is stopped when Goebbels connects him by phone to Hitler. Recognizing the voice on the other end, Remer realizes that the Reserve Army has been duped. SS officers are released and the plotters are besieged inside the Bendlerblock. The headquarters staff flees, but the resistance leaders are arrested. Attempting to save himself, Fromm convenes an impromptu court martial, places Beck under arrest, and sentences Von Quirnheim, Olbricht, Haeften, and Stauffenberg to death. The ringleaders are executed by firing squad, Beck is given a pistol and commits suicide and Tresckow commits suicide in a forest by holding a grenade to his throat, Witzleben and Goerdeler are sentenced by Roland Freisler in show trials and hanged. A rifle of this exceptional quality and beauty, to be bespoke made today, by one of the few remaining finest gunsmiths in Europe, such as Purdy of London, would likely be in excess of £120,000 to £200,000 .

Code: 23463

7950.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Very Good, Victorian, Wilkinson Sword, Royal Irish Lancers Sabre

Recorded in the Wilkinson Sword Register as belonging to a 5th Lancers Officer, Basil St.john Mundy from 1882. Basil St John Mundy was born on 4 April 1862, and appointed Lieutenant in the 1st Dragoon Guards on 2 August 1882, and transferred to the 5th Lancers shortly afterwards. He was promoted to Captain in August 1887 and promoted to Major in April 1897. He qualified and was awarded the Egypt and Sudan Medal 1882-89, 1 clasp, Suakin 1885 He served with the Sudan Expedition in 1885. A sword of a lancer officer and exactly as is shown like the sword used by Winston Spencer Churchill, adorned in his uniform the 4th Hussars. The pattern of sword used throughout Queen Victoria's reign right up to 1912. Purchased by an officer of the 5th Lancers. The 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers joined the Nile Expedition in autumn 1884. It then fought against the forces of Osman Digna near Suakin in 1885 during the Mahdist War. The regiment fought at the Battle of Elandslaagte on 21 October 1899, at the Battle of Rietfontein on 24 October 1899 and at the Siege of Ladysmith in November 1899 during the Second Boer War. The Nile Expedition, sometimes called the Gordon Relief Expedition (1884?85), was a British mission to relieve Major-General Charles George Gordon at Khartoum, Sudan. Gordon had been sent to the Sudan to help Egyptians evacuate from Sudan after Britain decided to abandon the country in the face of a rebellion led by self-proclaimed Mahdi, Mahommed Ahmed. A contingent of Canadians was recruited to help the British navigate their small boats up the Nile River. The Nile Expedition was the first overseas expedition by Canadians in a British imperial conflict, although the Nile Voyageurs were civilians employees and did not wear uniforms.
The expedition and its background are vividly described in Winston Churchill's book The River War.
Winston's former regiment, the 4th, saw action, as part of the light brigade under the command of Major General the Earl of Cardigan, at the Battle of Alma in September 1854.The regiment was in the second line of cavalry on the right flank during the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava in October 1854. The brigade drove through the Russian artillery before smashing straight into the Russian cavalry and pushing them back; it was unable to consolidate its position, however, having insufficient forces and had to withdraw to its starting position, coming under further attack as it did so.The regiment lost 4 officers and 55 men in the debacle. Private Samuel Parkes was awarded the Victoria Cross during the charge for saving the life of a Trumpeter, Hugh Crawford. The regiment became the 4th (Queen's Own) Hussars in 1861 and Winston Churchill was commissioned as a cornet in the 4th Hussars in February 1895. The 5th Lancers battle honours received were; Blenheim, Ramillies, Oudenarde, Malplaquet, Suakin 1885, Defence of Ladysmith, South Africa 1899?1902
The Great War: Mons, Le Cateau, Retreat from Mons, Marne 1914, Aisne 1914, Messines 1914, Ypres 1914, 1915, Gheluvelt, St. Julien, Bellewaarde, Arras 1917, Scarpe 1917, Cambrai 1917, Somme 1918, St. Quentin, Amiens, Hindenburg Line, Canal du Nord, Pursuit to Mons, France and Flanders 1914?18

Code: 20080

895.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A French Mid to Late 19th Century Heavy Cavalry Sword

Typical Cuirassier double fullered 95 cm straight blade, aresenal engraved along the spine, Manf D'armes Du Chatl: Avril 1874 Cavalrie De Reserve [Cuirassiers] Mdl. 1854. All steel, single ring combat scabbard. Brass guard, somewhat of the Sabre de Cavalerie modele M1822 type, with replaced leather bound grip. Much of the French heavy cavalry wore armoured cuirass and were armed with their straight swords, pistols and carbines. Though the armour could not protect against contemporary flintlock musket fire, it could deflect shots fired from long-range, stop ricochets and offer protection from all but very close range pistol fire. More importantly, in an age which saw cavalry used in large numbers, the breastplates (along with the helmets) provided excellent protection against the swords and lances of opposing cavalry and against infantry bayonets. It also had some psychological effect for the wearer (effectively making the cuirassier more willing to plunge into the thick of fighting) and the enemy (adding intimidation), while it also added weight to a charge, especially in cavalry versus cavalry actions.
Napoleonic French cuirasses were originally intended to be proof against three musket shots at close range; however, this was never achieved in practice. The regulations eventually recognised this, and cuirasses were subsequently only expected to be proof against one shot at long range. Dragoon regiments were not armoured.

The French cuirassiers numbered 11 regiments at the outbreak of war but had not seen active service since the Battle of Waterloo. A brigade comprising the 6th and 9th Regiments had served in the Crimean War but had not actually encountered the enemy. Accordingly, the prospect of action against the Prussian Army, which included 10 cuirassier regiments of its own, was seen as an opportunity for a strongly traditional branch of the French cavalry to prove its continuing relevance. In the event, in a series of massed charges against Prussian infantry and artillery at Froeschwiller and Rezonville, the French cuirassiers suffered very heavy losses for little return. To cover the French retreat General Michel's brigade of cavalry was ordered to charge. The order was somewhat vague, and in his position under cover near Eberbach, General Michel's had no knowledge of the actual situation. Thus it came about that, without reconnoitering or manoeuvering for position, the French cavalry rode straight at the first objective which offered itself, and struck the victorious Prussians as they were crossing the hills between the Albrechtsh?userhof and Morsbronn. Hence the charge was costly and only partly successful. However, the Prussians were ridden down here and there, and their attention was sufficiently absorbed while the French infantry rallied for a fresh counterstroke. This was made about 13:20 h with the utmost gallantry. The Prussians were driven off the hillsides between the Albrechtsh?userhof and Morsbronn which they had already won. But the counter-attack turned into disaster when 700 French cuirassiers were trapped inside Morsbronn and massacred within a few minutes by rapid close-range fire. The rest of the French cavalry eventually came under fire from the great artillery mass above Gunstett; von Bose having at length concentrated the main body of the XI corps in the meadows between the Niederwald and the Sauer, the French had to withdraw. The story of the Cuirassiers at Reichshoffen displayes well the courage of the French cavalrymen. The French infantry withdrawal involved the retreat of the troops who had fought all day in defence of the Niederwald.
In desperation, MacMahon ordered General Michel's Cuirassier brigade (8th and 9th Cuirassiers) to attack the Prussians and buy his infantry the time they needed to fall back. Morsbronn and the flank of the Prussian XI Corps was to be the target of the charge.
Obediently Michel led his cuirassiers out of Eberbach where they had been held in reserve all morning. Sunlight glinted off polished cuirasses and helmets and harness jangled as the magnificent cavalry trotted off towards the south. As they emerged from the narrow Eberbach valley, Michel quickly lined up his squadrons and sounded the charge. Their swords drawn and horsetail crests streaming behind them, the cuirassiers thundered towards the Prussians. Suddenly the charging troopers were met not by a hail of bullets, but by hedged fields, fences, and trellised vineyards. The formation began to come apart. The various captains rallied their squadrons and continued the advance, but momentum had been lost. Now Prussian infantry opened on the French cavalry at point-blank range, and Krupps guns tore huge gaps in the charging ranks as horses and riders plunged and went down in writhing masses. A few squadrons actually reached Morsbronn where the Prussians blasted them from second story windows and trapped them in barricaded streets. Nine squadrons were shot to pieces.

Code: 20222

820.00 GBP


Shortlist item
New Additions Coming This Week, Antique Japanese Tantos And Katana, ‘Brown Bess’ Flintlock Musket By Wilson of London

Plus a stunning pair of red lacquer Samurai Edo Abumi [horse stirrups] of the Li clan, the so called Red Devil’s. In the Battle of Komaki Nagakute, fought in 1584, Ii Naomasa clan fronted 3,000 matchlock gunmen, his front line forces up wearing what would become the clan’s trademark, bright red lacquered armour, with high horn-like helmet crests. Their fearsome fighting skills with the gun and long-spear, and their red armour had them become known as Ii’s Red Devils. He fought so well at Nagakute, that he was highly praised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi leader of the opposition! Ii Naomasa was known as one of the Four Guardians of the Tokugawa. Plus, also to add some ancestral samurai swords last used in WW2, Roman legionary rings and Roman ‘key’ lock rings.

Code: 23467

Price
on
Request


A British 'Great Game' Period Sikh Bronze Medal. The Tibet Campaign 1903-4

Medal direct from the period of 'The Great Game'. "The Great Game" was the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. A less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. In the post-Second World War post-colonial period, the term has continued in use to describe the geopolitical machinations of the Great Powers and regional powers as they vie for geopolitical power and influence in the area.

The term "The Great Game" is usually attributed to Arthur Conolly (1807?1842), an intelligence officer of the British East India Company's 6th Bengal Light Cavalry. It was introduced into mainstream consciousness by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim (1901).
The British under direction of Viceroy Lord George Curzon launched the Younghusband expedition in 1903 under the strong perception that Russia had been meddling in Tibet in order to gain dominance in the region as a means to use Tibet as a gateway to threaten Britain?s imperial colony of India. Although this perception proved false in the end, the decision and judgement was built up primarily out of the Viceroy?s own suspicions and experiences with Russia?s Asiatic policies. Through the expedition Curzon also sought to establish a definitive northern border with Tibet so that British India could properly fortify its frontier and to make sure that the agreed borders would be respected. Free trade between Tibet and British India was also sought to be opened through the expedition which would seek the opening of the Chumbi route to Lhasa. Lastly, the expedition was spurred out of European curiosities for the Tibet region that had been shrouded in mystery due to the isolationist policies imposed by both Tibet and its Chinese suzerain. The expedition fought its way to Gyantse and eventually reached Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, in August 1904. The Dalai Lama had fled to safety, first in Mongolia and later in China, but thousands of Tibetans armed with antiquated muzzle-loaders and swords had been mown down by modern rifles and Maxim machine guns while attempting to block the British advance. At Lhasa, the Commission forced remaining low-level Tibetan officials to sign the Treaty of Lhasa (1904), before withdrawing to Sikkim in September, with the understanding the Chinese government would not permit any other country to interfere with the administration of Tibet. Awarded to Cooly ???? Khan of the Supply and Transport Corps.

Code: 19472

395.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Superb, Original, 1st Century BC to AD Roman Hasta Spearhead From the Time of Julius Caesar, Mark Anthony and Octavian,.. later Known As Augustus Caesar

Exactly as used at the Battles of Philippi and Actium. The Powerful Hasta
The hasta was the Roman's spear. Hasta means spear in Latin, this weapon was longer than a sword so they could attack their enemy from a farther distance. This spear was not intended to be thrown it was mainly used for thrusting. It was 6 and a half feet long, with a shaft made of ash. The head was created from iron, and had a sharp point. Roman soldiers that carried these spears were called, Hastati. Hastae were the main weapon in the time of ancient Rome and probably the most effective. To deprive a soldier of his hasta was equivalent to degrading him to the rank of the velites, who were armed with javelins. A blunt hasta with a button at the end (hasta pilra) continued to be used in later times as a military decoration. The hasta indeed was employed in many symbolical connections. The fetialis, for instance, hurled a blood-stained hasta into the enemy's territory as a token of declaration of war, and if a general devoted his life for his army he stood on a hasta while repeating the necessary formula. The hasta was also set up as a symbol of legal ownership when the censor farmed out the taxes, when state property, booty for instance, was sold; at private auctions (hence called subhastationes), and at the sittings of the court of the centumviri, which had to decide on questions of property.
1st century BC-1st century AD. An iron spearhead with tapering split socket, thick midrib to the leaf-shaped blade, lateral rivet holes and step above the mouth. In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator,with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse (second in command); Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after 11 days, resigned this dictatorship. Caesar then pursued Pompey to Egypt, arriving soon after the murder of the general. There, Caesar was presented with Pompey's severed head and seal-ring, receiving these with tears. He then had Pompey's assassins put to death.

Caesar then became involved with an Egyptian civil war between the child pharaoh and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, Cleopatra. Perhaps as a result of the pharaoh's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra. He withstood the Siege of Alexandria and later he defeated the pharaoh's forces at the Battle of the Nile in 47 BC and installed Cleopatra as ruler. Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory with a triumphal procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 BC. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, and Caesar was introduced to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Afterwards, Octavius took the name Gaius Julius Caesar and was called Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi (42 BC), the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as de facto dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members; Lepidus was exiled in 36 BC, and Antony was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.Octavian pursued them and defeated their forces in Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC—after which Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Antony fell on his own sword and was taken by his soldiers back to Alexandria where he died in Cleopatra's arms. Cleopatra died soon after, reputedly by the venomous bite of an asp or by poison. Octavian had exploited his position as Caesar's heir to further his own political career, and he was well aware of the dangers in allowing another person to do the same. He therefore followed the advice of Arius Didymus that "two Caesars are one too many", ordering Caesarion, Julius Caesar's son by Cleopatra, killed, while sparing Cleopatra's children by Antony, with the exception of Antony's older son. Octavian had previously shown little mercy to surrendered enemies and acted in ways that had proven unpopular with the Roman people, yet he was given credit for pardoning many of his opponents after the Battle of Actium 104 grams, 20.2cm (8"). From a private Buckinghamshire, UK, collection; acquired in the 1990s.

Code: 23411

995.00 GBP


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