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A Superb Original Spencer Carbine, Probably the Best Carbine Rifle of the American Civil War, and, In The Wild West

A Superb Original Spencer Carbine, Probably the Best Carbine Rifle of the American Civil War, and, In The Wild West

An absolutely cracking example in superb condition for age, probably one of the best we have seen in years, and comparable or possibly better to one we had last year, which was, until then, the finest we had seen anywhere in the last 10 years. Complete with its removable and reloadable magazine. Serial numbered 33k range.

It bears a US inspector’s cartouche stamp on the stock, and that particular inspector is seen on the Colorado issue range, within the 33k serial numbered guns, this is rare in that only 500 carbines from this serial numbered range were transferred to the Colorado territory, and this is only the second we have ever seen, both in that rarely seen 33k serial number sequence.

Colorado, in the world famous Rocky Mountains aka ‘The Rockies’, was at the very heart of what is known today as the “Wild West’ period, and it went through an incredible series of historical events at this time, it was not granted statehood till August 1st 1876, as President Andrew Jackson vetoed it in 1865, it had an amazing and violent ‘Gold Rush’ period during the war, and it was experiencing all manner of difficulties and dangers regarding the breaking of the Fort Laramie Treaty, which became known as the the Colorado War, between the warring Native American tribes. It became the centre of so many Hollywood ‘Wild West’ films in the entire 20th century, in the telling of the stories of Colorado and ‘The Rockies’ that one way or another it became one of the most famous territories and states of America around the world.

In modern movie times the 1860 Spencer Rifle was used by Clint Eastwood and Morgan Freeman in ‘The Unforgiven’ and in ‘3.10 to Yuma’ by Christin Bale

The Spencer was the most advanced infantry weapon in the world of its times, it was patented in 1860 by Christian Spencer, a machinist who worked in Hartford. Conn. For Sharps and developed the Spencer on his own time. We are offering this simply superb example that is in great condition for its age. This carbine was a fundamental game changer of the entire Civil War. Although Confederates captured some of these weapons, the South's armament industry was unable to manufacture much of the ammunition due to a shortage of copper. It is only a small exaggeration to state that this cartridge decided the outcome of the Civil War.
Col. John T. Wilder said of them:"Hoover's Gap was the first battle where the Spencer repeating rifle had ever been used, and in my estimation they were better weapons that has yet taken their place, being strong and not easily injured by the rough usage of army movements, and carrying a projectiile that disabled any man who was unlucky enough to be hit by it." One of his soldiers wrote about the Spencer that it "never got out of repair. It would shoot a mile just as accurately as the finest rifle in the world. It was the easiest gun to handle in the manual of arms drill I have ever seen. It could be taken all to pieces to clean, and hence was little trouble to keep in order -- quite an item to lazy soldiers." According to Smith Aktins, a colonel in Wilder's regiment, it was "the best arm for service in the field ever invented, better than any other arm in the world then or now, so simple in its mechanism that it never got out of order, and was always ready for instant service.".

Major-General James H. Wilson, who was instrumental in crushing Hood at Nashville (15-16 Dec. 1864) and defeated Forrest at Selma (2 April 1865), wrote the following about them: "There is no doubt that the Spencer carbine is the best fire-arm yet put into the hands of the soldier, both for economy of ammunition and maximum effect, physical and moral. Our best officers estimate one man armed with it [is] equivalent to three with any other arm. I have never seen anything else like the confidence inspired by it in the regiments or brigades which have it. A common belief amongst them is if their flanks are covered they can go anywhere. I have seen a large number of dismounted charges made with them against cavalry, infantry, and breast-works, and never knew one to fail. It was the world's first practical repeater and fired a .52 calibre metallic rimfire cartridge (patented by Smith & Wesson in 1854 and perfected by Henry in the late 1850's} which completely prevented gas leakage from the back because the brass casing expanded on ignition to seal the chamber. It had a "rolling block" (actually a rotating block) activated by lowering the trigger guard. This movement opened the breech and extracted the spent cartridge. Raising the lever caused a new cartridge, pushed into position by a spring in the 7-round magazine, to be locked into the firing chamber. The 7-round magazine was located in the stock.
The Spencer was easy to manufacture (given the requisite industrial infrastructure), had relatively few parts, many of which were in common with the Sharps rifles, and was cheaper than other repeaters on the market such as the Henry. It also turned out to be extremely reliable under battlefield conditions. Its great advantage over the muzzle loading rifles such as the Enfields and Springfields lay not only in the rapidity of fire, but also in the ability of the shooter to aim each shot. In a normal battle situation, the muzzle loaders were fired in an aimed manner only the first few shots, thereafter it was usually a case of hurried fire after frantic loading. A trained soldier could get off two or three shots a minute with them until the barrel fouled with lead deposit. With the Spencer the soldier could fire 20 to 30 times a minute when necessary, taking advantage of the cartridge box which held 10 preloaded magazines. The only disadvantage of the Spencers was the relatively small powder charge in the cartridge which limited its range. Some marksmen therefore preferred the single shot Sharps breechloader which used paper or linen cartridges with a larger powder charge and had greater range. With the Sharps you could fire about 10 times a minute. But for the cavalry which fought mostly at close range, the Spencer was the weapon of choice.

Introduced in Jan. 1862, it found its first major use by Col. John Wilder's Indiana "Lightning Brigade" of mounted infantry at Hoover's Gap during the Tullahoma Campaign (22 June - 3 July 1863). The firepower and speed of this unit overwhelmed Wheeler's cavalry guarding the southern end of this pass and allowed George H. Thomas's 14th infantry corps to place itself on the flank of the Confederate General Hardee. This sudden development misled Hardee into thinking he had been outflanked by the entire Union Army of the Cumberland, and he retreated without orders back to Tullahoma, 15 miles in his rear. Wilder then spearheaded the turning movement to the east of Tullahoma, and this in turn undermined Bragg's entire defensive line, and he had to pull back into Chattanooga. At the price of about 500 casualties the Union Army advanced 100 miles and made military history. Later, at the battle of Chickamauga (19-20 Sept. 1863), his troops used them with decisive effect on the first day, keeping Bragg's troops from cutting the road to Chattanooga, and slowing Longstreet's attack on the second day. This is the scarcer Burnside Spencer Repeating Rifle Contract Carbine,

Made in Providence Rhode Island This specimen is one of the Burnside Contract, making it much scarcer and thus rarer than those standard carbines made by the Spencer Repeating Rifle Company. Out of the 34,000 made by Burnside, over 30,000 were purchased by the U.S. government, which in gun production numbers, during this period, 30,000 was a most small contract indeed.

On October 16, 1868, 500 Burnside Contract Spencer Carbines were transferred by the Ordnance Department to the Colorado Territory. The Ordnance inspector cartouche remain visible on the left side of the stock behind the sling ring bar, this particular Ordnance stamp is also the ones used for the 500 Colorado Territory guns shipment.

Thousands of people had flooded into Colorado between 1858-1861 trying to find quick riches. As a result, the Colorado territory was born. This was the first time that a concentrated group of people had began to settle the region. It was almost immediately filled with wealth, trade, and rail transportation. By 1865, more than 1 million ounces of gold had been found. But this now overpopulated area had spilt out and violated an already unstable situation; The Treaty of Fort Laramie had been broken. The Treaty was meant to establish boundaries and offer peace, internally and externally, among both the United States and Natives. The American miners settling on the Native land only exaggerated the existing conflicts between tribes. The result ended up being years of war between multiple tribes and the U.S. Government, in what is now known as the Colorado War.
As the conflicts ceased, population growth flourished, and resources kept flowing, the territory became a state on August 1, 1876. Colorado could have been a state a little sooner if President Andrew Jackson didn’t issue a veto against the statehood in 1865. A lot of American history happened in a short span of time. Colorado played a huge role in the history of the American West, making the potential of this rifle in our opinion very special indeed.
As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23152

4750.00 GBP


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A Most Attractive Carved Bone Hilted British King George IIIrd Period 18th Century Spadroon

A Most Attractive Carved Bone Hilted British King George IIIrd Period 18th Century Spadroon

A scarce form of spadroon with a trefoil [triple edged] blade, and traditional brass stirrup 'spadroon ' guard.
A spadroon is a light sword with a straight edged blade, enabling both cut and thrust attacks. The style became popular among military and naval officers in the 1700s, as well as pirates, spreading from England to the United States and to France, where it was known as the epee anglaise.

Code: 21581

595.00 GBP


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The Shop Will Be Closed on Tuesday 24th We Re-open Wednesday as Usual

The Shop Will Be Closed on Tuesday 24th We Re-open Wednesday as Usual

01273 321357 {from within the UK}
+ 44 {0} 1273 321357 {for international callers}

mail@thelanesarmoury.co.uk

We are also always contactable on 07721 010085
or from outside the UK on + 44 07721 010085 or via email mail@thelanesarmoury.co.uk

Code: 24256

Price
on
Request


11th Century Earliest Crusader Knight's Period Bronze Encolpion Reliquary Cross, Still Sealed.

11th Century Earliest Crusader Knight's Period Bronze Encolpion Reliquary Cross, Still Sealed.

From a collection of ancient artefacts from an 1820 Grand Tour family, from the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Greeks, the Crusuder Knights era, through to the Battle on Agincourt and on to the battle of Waterloo.
This is the second of two very similar original Crusader era Encolpion Reliquary Crosses we were delighted to acquire in the collection.

On the face of this work the engraved cross. it will have a hollow portion formed inside the box was intended for the sacred relic that the faithful would have worn around the neck. Incredibly, its mounting hanging ring is still nicely intact and appears to be perfectly wearable still today [by adding a loop and chain]. Part four of the amazing collection of Crusades period Crucifixes and reliquary crosses for the early Anglo Norman Crusader knights and Jerusalem pilgrims. As used in the early Crusades Period by Knights, such as the Knights of Malta Knights Hospitaller, the Knights of Jerusalem the Knights Templar, the Knights of St John.The new Norman rulers were culturally and ethnically distinct from the old French aristocracy, most of whom traced their lineage to the Franks of the Carolingian dynasty from the days of Charlemagne in the 9th century. Most Norman knights remained poor and land-hungry, and by the time of the expedition and invasion of England in 1066, Normandy had been exporting fighting horsemen for more than a generation. Many Normans of Italy, France and England eventually served as avid Crusaders soldiers under the Italo-Norman prince Bohemund I of Antioch and the Anglo-Norman king Richard the Lion-Heart, one of the more famous and illustrious Kings of England. An encolpion "on the chest" is a medallion with an icon in the centre worn around the neck upon the chest. This stunning and neck worn example is bronze with a good ring mount . 10th to 12th century. The hollow portion formed inside the cross was intended for the sacred relic that the faithful would have worn around the neck. The custom of carrying a relic was largely widespread, and many early bronze examples were later worn by the Crusader knights on their crusades to liberate the Holy Land. Relics of the True Cross became very popular from the 9th century, and were carried in cross-shaped reliquaries like this, often decorated with enamels, niellos, and precious stones. The True Cross is the name for physical remnants from the cross upon which Jesus Christ was crucified. Many Catholic and Orthodox churches possess fragmentary remains that are by tradition believed to those of the True Cross. Saint John Chrysostom relates that fragments of the True Cross were kept in reliquaries "which men reverently wear upon their persons". A fragment of the True Cross was received by King Alfred from Pope Marinus I (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, year 883). An inscription of 359, found at Tixter, in the neighbourhood of Sétif in Mauretania, was said to mention, in an enumeration of relics, a fragment of the True Cross, according to an entry in Roman Miscellanies, X, 441.

Fragments of the Cross were broken up, and the pieces were widely distributed; in 348, in one of his Catecheses, Cyril of Jerusalem remarked that the "whole earth is full of the relics of the Cross of Christ," and in another, "The holy wood of the Cross bears witness, seen among us to this day, and from this place now almost filling the whole world, by means of those who in faith take portions from it." Egeria's account testifies to how highly these relics of the crucifixion were prized. Saint John Chrysostom relates that fragments of the True Cross were kept in golden reliquaries, "which men reverently wear upon their persons." Even two Latin inscriptions around 350 from today's Algeria testify to the keeping and admiration of small particles of the cross. Around the year 455, Juvenal Patriarch of Jerusalem sent to Pope Leo I a fragment of the "precious wood", according to the Letters of Pope Leo. A portion of the cross was taken to Rome in the seventh century by Pope Sergius I, who was of Byzantine origin. "In the small part is power of the whole cross", says an inscription in the Felix Basilica of Nola, built by bishop Paulinus at the beginning of 5th century. The cross particle was inserted in the altar.

The Old English poem Dream of the Rood mentions the finding of the cross and the beginning of the tradition of the veneration of its relics. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle also talks of King Alfred receiving a fragment of the cross from Pope Marinus (see: Annal Alfred the Great, year 883). Although it is possible, the poem need not be referring to this specific relic or have this incident as the reason for its composition. However, there is a later source that speaks of a bequest made to the 'Holy Cross' at Shaftesbury Abbey in Dorset; Shaftesbury abbey was founded by King Alfred, supported with a large portion of state funds and given to the charge of his own daughter when he was alive – it is conceivable that if Alfred really received this relic, that he may have given it to the care of the nuns at Shaftesbury

Most of the very small relics of the True Cross in Europe came from Constantinople. The city was captured and sacked by the Fourth Crusade in 1204: "After the conquest of the city Constantinople inestimable wealth was found: incomparably precious jewels and also a part of the cross of the Lord, which Helena transferred from Jerusalem and which was decorated with gold and precious jewels. There it attained the highest admiration. It was carved up by the present bishops and was divided with other very precious relics among the knights; later, after their return to the homeland, it was donated to churches and monasteries.To the category of engolpia belong also the ampullae, or vials or vessels of lead, clay or other materials in which were preserved such esteemed relics as oil from the lamps that burned before the Holy Sepulchre, and the golden keys with filings from St. Peter's chains, one of which was sent by St. Gregory the Great to the Frankish King Childebert.

Encolpion, a different anglicization of the same word, covers the early medieval tradition in both Eastern and Western Christianity. Superb condition, top swivel ring mount immobile, still sealed, so it may still contain part of the 'real cross'.
Surface in very good condition, with typical natural aged patina with encrustations.

Code: 24252

450.00 GBP


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An Amazing and Very Fine Original Moghul Empire Katar, 17th Century European Blade From the Time Of Shah Jahan

An Amazing and Very Fine Original Moghul Empire Katar, 17th Century European Blade From the Time Of Shah Jahan

Indian katar from the era of Shah Jahan, builder of The Taj Mahal, the most famous monument to a beloved wife in the world. This wonderful Katar push dagger is mounted with a likely German sword blade from the early 1600s. It was very popular in the Moghul era to import German blades and mount them with Indian hilts. The blade is attached to the hilt with traditional multi rivetting, and the chisseled hilt is overlaid in areas of sheet silver or gold, as would be suitable for a prince. It appears gold in colour but it may be aged silver. Painting [circa 1650] of Moghul Shah Shuja who was the second son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and Empress Mumtaz Mahal, wearing his similar Katar. He was the governor of Bengal and Odissa and had his capital at Dhaka, presently Bangladesh.

] Shah Jahan is best remembered for his architectural achievements. His reign ushered in the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, in which is entombed his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. His relationship with Mumtaz Mahal has been heavily adapted into Indian art, literature and cinema. He owned the royal treasury, and several precious stones such as the Kohinoor and has thus often been regarded as the wealthiest person in history.

The death of his father Jahangir in late 1627 spurred a war of succession between his sons Shahryar and Khurram from which Shah Jahan emerged victoriously. He executed all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor on January 1628 in Agra, under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). His rule saw many grand building projects, including the Red Fort and the Shah Jahan Mosque. Foreign affairs saw war with the Safavids, aggressive campaigns against the Shia Deccan Sultanates,[10] conflict with the Portuguese, and positive relations with the Ottoman Empire. Domestic concerns included putting down numerous rebellions, and the devastating famine from 1630-32.

In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill. This set off a war of succession among his four sons in which his third son, Aurangzeb, emerged victorious and usurped his father's throne. Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, but Emperor Aurangzeb put his father under house arrest in Agra Fort from July 1658 until his death in January 1666. He was laid to rest next to his wife in the Taj Mahal. His reign is known for doing away with the liberal policies initiated by Akbar. Shah Jahan was an Orthodox Muslim, and it was during his time that Islamic revivalist movements like the Naqsbandi began to shape Mughal policies

Code: 21565

785.00 GBP


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Sword of US General John H Eaton, President Jackson’s Personal Envoy, and Aide in the Creek War, and the War of 1812. A Superb Spanish Epee Presented by the Queen of Spain to US General J.H. Eaton in 1837

Sword of US General John H Eaton, President Jackson’s Personal Envoy, and Aide in the Creek War, and the War of 1812. A Superb Spanish Epee Presented by the Queen of Spain to US General J.H. Eaton in 1837

This fabulous sword was later worn, after its inheritance from General Eaton, by a friend of Ulysses S. Grant, Col. James A. Magruder, at the funeral of President Lincoln.

Since 1967, for several decades, this wonderful and historic sword was on display at Dumbarton House in Washington DC, a federal historic house museum

A simply stunning historical Spanish full dress epee, by tradition, presented to United States General John H Eaton, Envoy Extraordinary & Minister Plenipotentiary for President Andrew Jackson's America, to the Kingdom of Spain, by Her Majesty Maria Christina de Borbon, Queen Consort, and Regent [for her daughter] Isabella II Queen of Spain, in 1837. The sword has a fine tapering double-edged blade of flattened-hexagonal section, stamped 'Ano D 1837' and 'Fa Ntl Di Toledo' on the respective faces at the forte, finest gilt bronze hilt cast with wonderful classical ornament in relief, including oval shell-guard decorated with the Iberian eagle flanked by classical figures, the quillon-block bears the letter 'F' for Ferdinand' enclosed within a laurel wreath, a
pair of straight quillons, knuckle-guard and pommel, and integral grip all decorated en suite, in its blued iron scabbard (now oxidised to brown) with gilt-bronze suspensions mounts and drag 76.8 cm; 30 1/4 in blade
Provenance;
By tradition presented to General John H. Eaton US General J.H.Eaton, Envoy Extraordinary for President Andrew Jackson to Spain, who was married to the ward of President Andrew Jackson. It was presented by the Regent of Spain, Her Majesty Queen Maria Christina in 1837, when General Eaton was Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain (1836-1840). Maria Christina of Spain (when Regent for her daughter, the future Isabella II) was Maria Cristina de Borbon, Princesa de las Dos Sicilias; 27 April 1806 - 22 August 1878) she was Queen Consort of Spain (1829 to 1833) and Regent of Spain (1833 to 1840). This sword was thence passed after his death to his friend and physician Dr William B. Magruder; thence to his brother Colonel James A. Magruder, a personal friend of General Grant, who wore the sword on full dress occasions including the funeral of President Lincoln, thence by descent to
Mrs. Millicent Magruder Nichols, Massachusetts who gifted the sword to Dumbarton House in 1967. Dumbarton House, is a Federal period historic house museum in Washington, DC. The house serves as the headquarters for The National Society of Colonial Dames of America, a group of women whose ancestors contributed to America’s founding. Eaton originally became active in the Tennessee militia, and attained the rank of major. He developed a close friendship with Andrew Jackson, and served as an aide to Jackson during the Creek War and the War of 1812. Eaton took part in all Jackson's major campaigns. He supported Jackson's controversial decision in November 1814 to attack Pensacola in Spanish Florida, claiming that Spain had put herself in a belligerent position by allowing its territory to be occupied by British soldiers. Eaton participated in the Battle of New Orleans, and became a major proponent of Jackson's presidential candidacy following the war

The First Carlist War was a civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1840, the first of three Carlist Wars. It was fought between two factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy: the conservative and devolutionist supporters of the late king's brother, Carlos de Borbón (or Carlos V), became known as Carlists (carlistas), while the progressive and centralist supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, acting for Isabella II of Spain, were called Liberals (liberales), cristinos or isabelinos. It is considered by some authors the largest and most deadly civil war of the period.

The Carlist forces were split in three geographically distinct armies: Norte ('North'), Maestrazgo and Cataluña ('Catalonia'), which by and large operated independently from each other.

Aside from being a war of succession about the question who the rightful successor to king Ferdinand VII of Spain was, the Carlists’ goal was the return to a traditional monarchy, while the Liberals sought to defend the constitutional monarchy. Portugal, France and the United Kingdom supported the regency, and sent volunteer and even regular forces to confront the Carlist army.

As with every item we sell it will be accompanied with a Certificate of Authenticity, our unique lifetime guarantee

Code: 21497

3795.00 GBP


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NOW SOLD Waterloo Medal & Peninsula Bar. One Of The Finest History Waterloo Medals We Have Had the Privilege To Offer of Serjeant Alexander Mc Leod Hero of the ‘Black Watch’ the 42nd Foot, a Giant of a Man of his Day and One Of Wellington’s ‘Waterloo Men

NOW SOLD Waterloo Medal & Peninsula Bar. One Of The Finest History Waterloo Medals We Have Had the Privilege To Offer of Serjeant Alexander Mc Leod Hero of the ‘Black Watch’ the 42nd Foot, a Giant of a Man of his Day and One Of Wellington’s ‘Waterloo Men

Impressed SERJ. ALEX. McLEOD 42nd Or R.H. REG. INFANTRY. It is said the serjeants of the 42nd, were respected more by Wellington than any other regiment under his command. Thus, it is likely, as Sjt. McLeod towered above all his other officer's NCO's and men, being almost 6'2", that Wellington couldn't possibly have failed to notice him.
Photographed by us in its original Georgian wooden frame, with leather mount [cut from a book] the yellowing colour as can be seen on the silver bar mount appears to be just silver tarnish, but we are not polishing it, just leaving it as is.

From one of the greatest British Regiments, Serjeant Alexander McLeod, was born in Inverness, he joined [aged 19 years and 6’1 3/4” tall] The Black Watch, the 42nd foot, in 1809, and they later became the heroes of the Peninsular, Quatre Bras, and Waterloo.
Before Quatre Bras and Waterloo Sjt. McLeod had fought with distinction, and was severely wounded twice in the Peninsular War, first severely in the arm at the Pyrenees, on the 10th November 1813, at again at Orthez on the 27th February 1814, by cannon shrapnel wounds to both knees, and then later wounded at Waterloo, in June 1815, with a French sword cut to the head.

6 foot 1 3/4 inches may not sound like that much of a giant now, but at the time a regular infantry man's height was deemed as 5 foot 4 inches tall.

He was subsequently, after the war, demoted twice, first to corporal, then private, and eventually discharged from the regiment, with pension, in 1825, after 16 years of service in the 42nd the Black Watch, [aka Royal Highlanders] for‘misconduct', and his record states his general conduct during his service period since he joined in 1809, was, ‘Bad’. A Scottish hero, none the less.

It is often the way that great, valorous and skillfull combat soldiers will be promoted in wartime, as he demonstrably was, to serjeant, but in peacetime it often falls apart, and rapid promotion in war can lead to an equally rapid fall from grace in peace.

A Highlanders Waterloo Medal, with the [unnofficia] silver 'Peninsular' engraved bar mount for a ‘Waterloo Man’ a famed serjeant of the Black Watch, is literally as rare as hen’s teeth to appear on the market today, in fact we cannot recall seeing another example anywhere in the past 50 years. And for that recipient, furthermore, to also be a hero of the Peninsular War, wounded twice in action there, is simply icing on a rather impressive cake. As usual for a man that survived Waterloo, and received his medal, he wore it frequently and with pride, as it is recognised that a 'Waterloo Man' rarely ever had to dip his hands into his pocket to pay for a drink. Thus it was likely polished by him regularly, and therefore lost an element of crispness. But, this is absolutely not a medal unworn and 'as new', it has all the 5 star character as one could positively hope for, with all its hard won patina and wear just as its veteran owner would show. Its ribbon is original, and the silver mounting bar, engraved Peninsula, is also named [hand engraved] to Sjt. McLeod on the reverse.

There was no Peninsular bar ever issued by the Crown, but those that deserved it could have one added by a silver smith.

Sjt McLeod was part of Capt. Mungo Macpherson's company.

The 42nd, the Black watch, Royal Highlander's at
Quatre Bras, 16 June 1815

The 42nd were quartered in Brussels, having 39 officers and more than 500 men, commanded by Lt-Col Robert Macara KCB. They were in Picton's 5th Division, brigaded with the 3rd Btn Royal Scots, 2nd Btn 44th and the 92nd under Sir Denis Pack. Leaving Brussels in the early hours of 16 June they marched south through the Foret de Soignes, stopping for 2 hours at Waterloo and marching on to Quatre Bras along the road that went past La Haye Saint and La Belle Alliance. When they arrived after 3pm the battle had already started. The battleground of Quatre Bras contained the Wood of Bossu to the west, fields of wheat and tall rye grass. Picton's division was placed south of the Namur-Nivelles road and southeast of the Charleroi-Brussels road with Pack's brigade on the right. Marshal Ney who commanded the French sent two columns into the valley east of Gemioncourt to threaten the Brunswickers, so Wellington, at 4pm, ordered Picton's men to advance against the columns. They fired at and charged the French who fell back in disorder. The 42nd and 44th almost captured Gemioncourt Manor but it was too strongly held.

Quatre Bras
The Brunswick Hussars found themselves in trouble when they were counter-attacked by French Chasseurs. The 92nd opened their ranks to let the Hussars through but the pursuing Chasseurs a Cheval followed and attacked the 92nd from the rear. Wellington was almost killed by a Chasseur officer but some soldiers acted quickly and cut down the assailant. The 42nd and 44th were unsure whether to fire on the cavalry as it was difficult to see who was who through the long grass. It was at this point that French Lancers of Werthier's brigade appeared and attacked the Highlanders. A square was hastily formed but not quickly enough to prevent a lancer squadron getting inside. A desperate fight took place with most of the lancers being bayoneted. They in turn speared many highlanders, most notably the CO Lt-Col Macara who took a lance under the chin which penetrated his brain. Command passed to Lt-Col Dick who was soon wounded, then Brevet-Major Davidson who was mortally wounded, then Brevet-Major Campbell who commanded for the rest of the campaign. The 44th also had a hard fight with the lancers and Ensign Christie performed heroics to save the Colour. The two depleted battalions had to combine to form a single square for defence but they were short of ammunition and had to beg for more off Halkett's brigade who had recently arrived.

The 42nd/44th square suffered from artillery and skirmishers but they were witnesses to the tragedy that befell the 69th Regiment. They had been ordered to form square to prepare for an attack by Kellerman's cuirassiers but the interfering Prince of Orange appeared and ordered them to form line. This they did reluctantly and were attacked mercilessly by the French horsemen who killed 150 of them. But the cuirassiers did not get away Scot free as they were fired on by infantry and artillery so that they turned and fled. The battle ended with both sides having gained no ground and lost many brave men. The 42nd had 4 officers and 50 men killed, 22 officers and 337 men wounded.

It is said that without Quatre Bras there would never have been a Battle of Waterloo.

Waterloo, 18 June 1815

The 42nd, with the rest of the army, took up positions near Waterloo the following evening, 17 June. During the battle on the 18th the regiment was on the left of the line behind La Haye Sainte. In the early part of the fighting they had to face heavy enemy artillery fire and later in the day some subsidiary attacks. The battalion took part in the general advance when the French army finally broke. Their casualties were 5 men killed, 6 officers, 39 rank and file wounded. The six officers had already been wounded at Quatre Bras, and were wounded again at Waterloo. They were; Captain Mungo Macpherson, Lt John Orr, Lt George Gunn Munro, Lt Hugh Angus Fraser, Lt James Brander, and QM Donald Macintosh. The CO

In Wellington's reports he remarked that the 42nd,along with three other regiments, were remarkable in their prowess in battle, especially the abilities of the serjeants of the 42nd.

After the victory at Waterloo, the House of Commons voted that a medal be struck for all those who participated in the campaign. The Duke of Wellington was supportive, and on 28 June 1815 he wrote to the Duke of York suggesting:

... the expediency of giving to the non commissioned officers and soldiers engaged in the Battle of Waterloo a medal. I am convinced it would have the best effect in the army, and if the battle should settle our concerns, they will well deserve it.
On 17 September 1815 Duke of Wellington wrote to the Secretary of State for War, stating:

I recommend that we should all have the same medal, hung to the same ribbon as that now used with the [Army Gold] Medal.
The medal was issued in 1816–1817 to every soldier present at one or more of the battles of Ligny, Quatre Bras and Waterloo. Each soldier was also credited with two years extra service and pay, to count for seniority and pension purposes, and were to be known as "Waterloo Men".

This was the first medal issued by the British Government to all soldiers present during an action. The Military General Service Medal commemorates earlier battles, but was not issued until 1848. The Waterloo Medal was also the first campaign medal awarded to the next-of-kin of men killed in action.

At the time the medal was granted, when such things were not at all the norm, it was very popular with its recipients, though veterans of the Peninsular War may have felt aggrieved that those present only at Waterloo – many of them raw recruits – should receive such a public acknowledgement of their achievements. Meanwhile, those who had undergone the labours and privations of the whole war, had had no recognition of their services beyond the thirteen votes of thanks awarded to them in Parliament. There was no doubt some truth in this discontent on the part of the old soldiers; at the same time British military pride had hitherto rebelled against the practice common in Continental armies, of conferring medals and distinctions on every man, or every regiment, who had simply done their duty in their respective services. The medal was as much a symbol of the importance of the victory as it was of a desire to give general campaign medals to soldiers.

Eligibility British Army
Campaign(s)
Battle of Ligny (16 June 1815)
Battle of Quatre Bras (16 June 1815)

It was announced in the London Gazette on 23 April 1816 that the Prince Regent had been graciously pleased, in the name and on the behalf of His Majesty, to confer The Waterloo Medal upon every officer, non-commissioned officer and soldier of the British Army (including members of the King's German Legion) who took part in one or more of the following battles: Ligny (16 June 1815), Quatre Bras (16 June 1815) and Waterloo (18 June 1815).
After the victory at Waterloo, the House of Commons voted that a medal be struck for all those who participated in the campaign.

"... there are no troops in the British service
more steady in battle than the Scottish regiments."
- French General Foy

The closest historically interesting examples we could find to this medal, was a Waterloo Medal recipient, an infantry officer, Major A.R. Heyland, 40th Foot, who was also wounded several times during the Peninsular War, including at Talavera and Badajoz.
His Waterloo medal sold for £28,000 in April 2015. However, he was awarded his medal posthumously, as he was killed due to a head wound at the battle, like Sjt. McLoed but perished. Thus he never actually ever handled or wore his medal, unlike Sjt. McLeod.
Another historical past sold Waterloo Medal, in June 2012, was awarded to a cavalry officer, Major & Lieutenant-Colonel S. Ferrior, 1st Life Guards, Who ´Is Said to Have Lead His Regiment to the Charge No Less Than 11 Times, And Most of the Charges Were Not Made Till After His Head Had Been Laid Open By the Cut of a Sabre and His Body Was Pierced With a Lance´; He was killed in action, also by head wound, whilst in command of his regiment.
he also was awarded his medal posthumously, it sold in 2012 for
£33,000

Photos in the gallery are photocopies of his official records, these copies will accompany the medal

Code: 24250

Price
on
Request


A Superb, Original, British Pattern 1856

A Superb, Original, British Pattern 1856 "2-Band" Enfield Sword Bayonet

An exceptionally good example of a British 19th Century 1856/58 Pattern Enfield Yataghan sword bayonet.
In many respects it could be distinctly possible to never find a better once used example.
With black chequered leather grips and distinctive wavy Yataghan blade synonymous with this pattern. Good official inspection marks to blade, with regimental marks to the scabbard stud, and HP on the blade tang. At present unidentified. With a clean very bright blade in fabulous condition, and complete with its original excellent plus leather and steel mounted scabbard, with superb condition leather. Blade length is 23 inches (28.5 inches overall).
Armies during the American Civil War used a variety of weapons. Soldiers attached bayonets to the ends of rifles -- providing stabbing power during charges when loading a rifle quickly was impossible. Both Union and Confederate armies used this type of a model 1856 Enfield sabre bayonet. the Enfield 1856 short rifle, with long Yataghan sword bayonet, was in fact one of the most favoured arms used in the Civil War.

See two original photographs in the gallery of the Enfield rifle and sword bayonet held proudly by Civil War soldiers.

Pommel form: beaked with well-rounded end housing broad and deep T- shaped attachment slot. A small plain press stud, located on left side, operates locking catch via long steel leaf spring recessed within right side of pommel and grip. Back of pommel straight and flat, underside rounded. Pommel meets grips vertically. Grips form: two-piece black chequered leather. Left grip secured by four small steel rivets, right grip retained by three rivets and the leaf spring securing screw. Back and underside rounded and straight. Crossguard form: straight steel crosspiece, lower guard tapers to swept forward disc finial. Upper guard formed into full muzzle ring, 20mm aperture, topped by swept forward oval finial. Blade form: broad heavy yataghan blade with long false edge, deeply fullered. Blade back, after false edge, flat. Blade finish: bright steel.
History The P-1856 was the first short rifle in the new .577 calibre family of muskets made by the Enfield factory in England for the British Army.
The P-1856 was issued to all sergeants of Line Regiments, the Rifle Brigade and the 60th Regiment, the Cape Mounted Rifles and the Royal Canadian Rifles. Unlike the P-53 that was called a "rifle musket" the P-56 was called a "short rifle" or just a "rifle" to separate them from the long three band P-53 with a 39" barrel and the short carbine with 24" barrel. The P-56 had a 33" barrel. The P-56 replaced the old Baker and Brunswick rifles which was used in the British Army prior to the adoption of the minié system in 1851. Then in the 1860's tens of thousands were exported to America for the Civil War.

Code: 24249

295.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Unique, Small But Significant, Historical Boer War, the Siege of and Battle for Ladysmith Collection of A Combatant With Superb Personal Correspondence Provenance

A Unique, Small But Significant, Historical Boer War, the Siege of and Battle for Ladysmith Collection of A Combatant With Superb Personal Correspondence Provenance

Of Gunner Reginald Kisch, NNV one of the besieged at Ladysmith.
An HMS Powerful cap tally with accompanying original letter, from one of the 'Powerfuls', the landing party from HMS Powerful, for the Battle for Ladysmith, a pair of uniform epaulette shoulder board’s from a combatant at the siege, The Border Mounted Rifles, pieces of shrapnel from a Long Tom the destruction of 'Puffing Billy' [the British nickname of the Boers Long Tom big gun], plus numerous letters to Gunner Kisch' mother and sister, at the NNV [Natal Naval Volunteers] combatants home camp. Plus original newspaper cuttings of the war from the family.

The urgent transport of the cannon from HMS Powerful and HMS Terrible by the landing party, sent to the Siege of Ladysmith were the inspiration for the world renown Royal Naval Field Gun Competition at the Royal Tournament since 1907. [see below]

This collection would be a fabulous compliment to a medal group from the siege, such as from an HMS Powerful landing party combatant, or a NNV combatant, or a BMR combatant.

This is also the probably most historically interesting cap tally combat collection since our ‘Battle of River Plate’ German Battleship Graff Spee cap tally, taken from a killed German sailor, and personally given by Kapitan Langsdorff as a souvenir to a merchant ship captain who was a prisoner aboard his battleship. Now in a private museum collection in America.


Powerful's Naval Brigade Arrives in Ladysmith
The Powerful's Naval Brigade consisting of 283 officers and men, had arrived at the port of Durban on 29th October and travelled overnight by two trains to Ladysmith. The Brigade had with them two 4.7, four 12 pounders and four Maxim guns. The first detachment from the brigade arrived at 6am in Ladysmith in the middle of the Battle for Ladysmith. It had taken them just six days to adapt the 4.7" guns and then transport them by ship and rail to Ladysmith. Unfortunately, in the quest for speed, the Brigade did not bring sufficient ammunition. Percy Scott had asked for 5,000 rounds for the 4.7" guns but was given only 500 rounds - enough for 25 minutes of rapid firing. Departmental arguing saw to it that after Lambton had procured a further two 12 pounder guns, he was not to receive any further ammunition.

As soon as the Brigade arrived at Ladysmith Station it was under fire from the enemy. The 12 pounder guns were then transported using oxen and manpower to their positions and it was not long before they were finding their range and silencing the enemy's 'Long Tom' referred to as 'Puffing Billy' by the British. One enemy shell did dismount one of the 12 pounders and wounded three of the gun crew, the first casualties of the ship in South Africa.

It took several days for the 4.7" guns to be pulled to their positions on Junction Hill and Cove Redoubt from where they could fire on the Boers' long range guns (named Long Toms by the British). On the first day that the 4.7" guns were in action, 2 November, Lieutenant Egerton was killed by shells from Long Tom. His legs were hit by a shell bringing the response: "My cricketing days are over". His legs were amputated and by the afternoon he was cheerfully sitting up drinking champagne, but he died in the evening. On this day, the Naval Brigade's long guns were being fired on by at least five Boer guns and the town found itself finally cut off.

The Border Mounted rifles at the Siege;

the Volunteer Brigade under Colonel Royston, with Lieutenant Colonel H. T. Bru-de-Wold as Chief Staff Officer. The Naval volunteers were generally split up throughout the siege, part being on Caesar's Camp and part at Gordon Post. Between 1st November and the end of February the Natal Mounted Volunteers were frequently engaged. On 2nd November they were, with other troops, out reconnoitering; on the 3rd they were sent to cover the retirement of another force. On this occasion the Carbineers had Major Taunton and Sergeant Mapston killed, and the Border M.R. lost Captain Arnott and 11 men wounded. Section D of the defences of Ladysmith was placed under Colonel Royston. This included the thorn country north of Caesar's Camp and the Klip River Flats. Colonel Royston lost no time in building sangars and digging trenches, and soon had his section greatly strengthened. On 9th November the enemy attacked, firing 800 shells into the town; but their attack was driven off. On the 14th the Volunteers were out with Major-General Brocklehurst, and, along with the Imperial Light Horse, seized Star Hill; but it was not held permanently. When Sir Archibald Hunter made his deservedly famous sortie on 7th December to destroy the Boer guns on Gun Hill, his force consisted of 500 Natal Mounted Volunteers under Colonel Royston, 100 Imperial Light Horse (see that regiment), and a few Royal Engineers, artillerymen, and guides. The storming-parties were 100 Carbineers, Major Addison, and 100 ILH, Lieutenant Colonel Edwards. Two big guns were destroyed and one maxim brought back. Colonel Royston was among those specially mentioned in the body of the despatch. Sir George White had the ILH and Volunteers paraded on the following day, and, addressing them, said " that he did not wish to use inflated or exaggerated language, but the men of Sir Archibald Hunter's party were a credit, not only to the colony, but to the Empire. There was a lot of severe fighting to do, but it was a gratification to a General to have the help of such men."

The town and camps were during the siege constantly under shell-fire, and on 18th December one 6-inch shell bursting in the camp of the Carbineers killed 4 men, wounded 6 men, and destroyed 10 horses. The times were trying, but hard digging, sangar building, and brigade sports kept the men fairly fit. In the repulse of the great attack of 6th January 1900 the volunteers took a prominent part. The following is the report furnished by Colonel Royston to the Chief of the Staff : "I have to report that on Saturday, 6th inst., at about 4.15 am, I received information by telephone from headquarters that the enemy were making an attack on Wagon Hill. I at once despatched 80 men of the Natal MR, under Major Evans, to strengthen the outposts on the Flats, then held by 1 officer and 40 men Natal Police, attached to Volunteers, and 1 officer and 20 men Natal Carbineers. The Town Guard was also directed to stand fast at its post on the left bank of the Klip River. As it had been intimated that a battery of artillery would be placed at my disposal, I directed two squadrons Border MR, with one maxim, to accompany the guns. Major Abadie, at about 5.40 am, reported his guns in position near the point where the road to Caesar's Camp crosses the town rifle-range. On my arrival at the outpost line, at 5 am, the enemy were occupying the extreme south-eastern point of Caesar's Hill, well under cover amongst the rocks and bushes. About 50 men were visible from the Flats, but more appeared to be pushing on from the west in small parties. These men were being fired on from the thorn trees and from sangars below by my men as soon as they appeared in sight. A few minutes after my arrival the enemy advanced north along the top of the hill, firing at a party of 'Gordons' near a sangar about 500 yards to their front. I requested the officer commanding the battery to open fire, which he did with good effect, stopping the enemy's advance, and driving them into the rocks. As there appeared to be only a small party of the 'Gordons' opposed to the enemy at this spot, as far as I could see from below, I directed a squadron of Border MR, under Lieutenant Royston, to climb the hill and go to their assistance dismounted. This would be about 6 am. On my men joining the Gordons the party advanced towards the enemy in the rocks, but were at first driven back by their heavy fire, and the enemy again advanced. The battery again opened fire, and the 'Gordons' and the Border MR again advancing, drove the enemy over the point of the hill, and they never again mounted to the crest. At mid-day the enemy had retired about half way down the southern slope of the hill, but still kept up a heavy fire. Unfortunately, it was impossible to get at these with artillery fire from where the battery was limbered, owing to the danger of hitting our own people on the crest of the hill, and the officer commanding the battery did not consider it advisable, owing to the rough ground to cross, and to exposure to Bulwana, to advance any of his guns as far as our outpost line, from which point the enemy could be reached. Rifle-fire was kept up until the enemy finally got into the bed of the Fourie Spruit, where he could only be reached from the top of Caesar's Hill. A heavy fire was kept up until dark, when it gradually ceased, and the enemy appeared to be retiring up the Fourie Spruit. My casualties were 4 men killed and 2 officers and 10 men wounded. I wish to bring to notice the gallant manner in which the battery of artillery, under Major Abadie, stuck to its ground under the very heavy fire from the 6 inch gun and another long range gun on Umbulwana, and also the excellent practice made by the battery. I also consider that Lieutenant Royston, Border MR, did good service with his men. The behaviour of Captain Platt and Lieutenant Hornabrook, Vol. Med. Corps, in attending to the wounded throughout the day under heavy fire, deserves special mention; the last-named officer was wounded, besides having his clothes pierced by a bullet."

When Dundonald rode into Ladysmith on the evening of 28th February, he was accompanied by some Carbineers, Natal Mounted Rifles, Border Mounted Rifles, and Natal Police, the officers being Major D. M'Kenzie, Lieutenants Silburn, M'Kay Verney, Richards, Ashburnham, and Abraham. None of those present will ever forget this ride, probably the most memorable occasion in the lives of any of them.

The Royal Naval Field Gun Tournament;

The Interport Field Gun competition was established in 1907 and was a highlight of the Royal Tournament until the Last Run in 1999. After the demise of the Royal Tournament, the Brickwoods field gun competition was revived as a naval contest. known as the Most Dangerous Sport in the World, where losing a limb is a distinct possibility. two 18-strong teams of the Royal Navy's finest crashing around the main arena and performing a series of Formula One-style pit stops with a Victorian cannon.
Each set of kit weighs the same as a family car and each gun must be put together, taken apart and dragged up and down an 83-yard course, blasting off six shots in the process. It is all done in just over a minute. At this speed, the process can, literally, cost an arm and a leg. But there is no prize money. The teams competing for the pride of their respective bases - HM Naval Base, Portsmouth, and HMS Sultan in neighbouring Gosport. After four consecutive nights, the winning crew will receive a trophy from the Queen and, perhaps, a drink from their commanding officer.

The origins of the world famous field gun competition lie in the Second Boer War in South Africa. The legendary story tells of the siege of the British garrison in the township of Ladysmith in 1899. In support of the British Army, the Royal Navy landed guns from HMS Terrible and Powerful to help in the relief of the siege. The Naval Brigade transported guns over difficult terrain and brought them into action against the Boers.
The Royal Naval Field Gun Tournament;

The Royal Navy landed two 4.7 inch guns and four 12-pounder field guns. The guns were transported inland by rail and then drawn on makeshift carriages by oxen. For the final part of the journey, sailors from the Naval Brigade manhandled the guns over very difficult terrain. One story tells of sailors carrying one of the 12 pounder guns for 2 miles after one of the wheels collapsed.

The siege of Ladysmith lasted for 120 days until February 1900. On their return home, the sailors from the Naval Brigade paraded their guns through London and appeared at the Royal Naval and Military Tournament at the Agricultural Hall, Islington. Displays of Field Gun drill continued in subsequent years. A precursor to the competition lay in the presentation of Field Gun 'Evolutions' including one performed by Miss Weston’s Naval Boy’s Brigade from Portsmouth at the Royal Albert Hall on 21 October 1905 as part of the Centenary Commemoration of the Battle of Trafalgar

If you wish to watch the Royal Naval Gun Race on youtube copy and paste link below.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lhx6Q3WuvU

Code: 24243

1495.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Simply Stunning Quality 18th Century Large Double Side By Side Barrel Pistol, Most Often The Preserve of Generals During The American Revolutionary War in the 1770’s and Into the Napoleonic Period

A Simply Stunning Quality 18th Century Large Double Side By Side Barrel Pistol, Most Often The Preserve of Generals During The American Revolutionary War in the 1770’s and Into the Napoleonic Period

The ideal way to be armed with the firepower of a pair of pistols, in a single hand, while holding a sword within the other. Thus to be a formidably armed combatant in either hand to hand combat attack, or defence. Very similar to the large double barrel pistol once belonging to General Richard Montgomery, hero of the American Revolution. A large variation of the form of pistol categorised as 'Queen Anne' style. Made by a finest Bavarian maker, who marked his pistols with his monogram alone 'F.S', who worked in Dingolfing, Bavaria [also spelt Dinglfing]. There are several very fine early similar quality guns in the Metropolitan Museum from Dingolfing. Large full sized holster pistol, with a fabulous carved walnut stock and steel mounts with superb engraving in the wonderous Chinoiserie style, made most famous in England by its finest cabinetmaker and designer, Thomas Chipendale. The wonderful Chinoisserie style influenced everything from architectire, to furniture, to paintings, gun fittings, silver, and clocks. Twin individual steel barrels, with rare screw breech plugs. Good tight actions. Fine scroll Chinoiserie engraving to match throughout the steel mounts. Flintlock actions converted to cap lock in or around the 1830's. It was very common in the 1830's to convert highly prized or valuable flintlock pistols to the new and far more efficient percussion cap lock action. Flintlocks, famously, could not operate in the rain, or even in high winds, as the flintlocks pan powder could be wet or blow away, thus stopping the pistol from operating, problems that the new percussion helped to aleviate, The exposed pan of the flintlock action of a pistol was removed from the action entirely and replaced with the new enclosed cap system. This is a stunning double barrelled pistol is of a form that were often chosen by the most senior or high status officers, such as the wealthiest and most influential figures, of distinguished families of the 18th century, in both England and America. Such as, for example, General Sir John Cope who had similar such pistols. He was one of the commanders of British forces fighting Charles Stuart [the so-called Pretender, Bonnie Prince Charlie] in Scotland. General Cope was defeated at the Battle of Prestonpans, with a force of around 2500 men, by the army of Prince Charles. Another was General Richard Montgomery who was a hero of the American Revolutionary War of 1775. He was a gentleman of Anglo Irish descent who first served in the British Army in the Americas, but through his Whig ideals went on to become one of Washington's loyal Generals. He was on the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence and led the army into the Invasion of Canada. He died at the Battle of Quebec, in December 1775, after capturing Montreal. Another pair of fine Queen Anne style pistols were presented by Captain Hardy to Admiral Nelson and are in the National Maritime Collection [exhibit number E857] They are inscribed on the Silver escutcheon To Adm. Nelson from his Friend Cpt. Hardy June 1801. Fine quality, large size, 18th century twin barrel pistols are highly collectable and very scarce indeed. A picture in the gallery is of the death of General Montgomery at the Battle of Quebec; American general Richard Montgomery's body, that lies in the snow along with a few others, and he is surrounded by his officers, including men in army uniforms and hunting garb. A cannon lies broken in the foreground, and snow and gun smoke swirl around the scene. Chinoiserie, from 'chinois' the French for Chinese, was a style inspired by art and design from China, Japan and other Asian countries in the 18th century. At its height in Britain from 1750 to 1765, this fanciful style relied more on the designer's and craftsman's imagination than on accurately portraying oriental motifs and ornament. Chinoiserie entered European art and decoration in the mid-to-late 17th century; the work of Athanasius Kircher influenced the study of orientalism. The popularity of chinoiserie peaked around the middle of the 18th century when it was associated with the rococo style and with works by Fran?ois Boucher, Thomas Chippendale, and Jean-Baptist Pillement. It was also popularized by the influx of Chinese and Indian goods brought annually to Europe aboard English, Dutch, French, and Swedish East India Companies.Though chinoiserie never fully went out of fashion, it declined in Europe by the 1760s when the neoclassical style gained popularity, though remained popular in the newly formed United States through the early 19th century. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 22542

3850.00 GBP


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