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A Beautiful and Most Impressive Nanban-Nari Kabuto High Conical Samurai Helmet. Likely of A Christian Samurai, Known As Krishitan, Momoyama to Edo  Period. With Menpo Face Armour

A Beautiful and Most Impressive Nanban-Nari Kabuto High Conical Samurai Helmet. Likely of A Christian Samurai, Known As Krishitan, Momoyama to Edo Period. With Menpo Face Armour

A Nanban-nari, Christian decorated high conical helmet, with a koshi-no-ita base plate encircles the lower section of the skull, decorated around the border and across the apex with European form strap work with applied rivetted Catholic fleur-de-lys decor, a visor, or tousei mabisashi, is fitted to the front. Three-tiered black lacquer shikoro neck guard with sugake odoshi spaced lacing in very dark red braid. A tatsu tsunomoto holder for the maedate helmet crest, and a maedate in very decoratively pierced sinchu, brass alloy resembling gold. The maedate is of the form with slots that can have optional wakedate flat horns fitted.

The helmets fully embellished fleur-de-lys decor is a symbol of the 16th century Catholic Church, specifically Mary the Virgin. From antiquity it has been the symbol of purity and was readily adopted by the Roman Catholic church to associate the sanctity of Mary with events of special significance. The lily was said to have sprung from the tears shed by Eve as she left Eden. Thus, when Pope Leo III in 800 crowned Charlemagne as emperor, he is reported to have presented him with a blue banner covered (semé) with golden fleurs-de-lis.

The kabuto has a matching form Menpō face armour, that covered the face from the top of the nose down to the chin, with four rows of yodare-kake, throat guard armour. An early syle affixed and none removable nasal cover. All the main helmet and menpo surfaces, {except the shikoro} are in Higo russetted form.

Every year oir so we are delighted to acquired samurai swords with hidden Christian {Kakure Kirishitan} symbology, such as tsuba with pierced crucifix within in their designs, but we cannot recall ever seeing a Krishitan symbolised kabuto over these past 50 years. Only in Japanese museums, and very few of these.

The Nanban-nari Kabuto was introduced from the West during the Warring States period. Because it imitates the shape of a hat, it was called a “Nanban hat helmet”. Only the helmets bowl (Hachi ) was Nanban, other parts like Shikoro and Mabisashi were made and designed domestic style. This brand new kind of helmet was very popular at the time of introduction.
Nanban, In Japanese literally means “southern Barbarians”, actually refers to Europeans, because they came from the south of Japan. The helmets of the Europeans, Spanish and Portuguese, were of the morion or cabassat form. These new ‘barbarians’ not only brought Catholic monks to convert the samurai and their vassal peasants to Christianity, but their muskets, cannon, armour, leather, and clothing became de-riguer to influence everything from decor fashion armour and clothing. Especially amongst the converted daimyo lords, his family, and his samurai.

Face armour in Japan begins with the happuri, which is depicted in Heian- and Kamakura-era yamato-e paintings, and is thought to have appeared during the 10th or 11th centuries.It is depicted as being worn with or without a helmet by both mounted warriors and foot retainers. By the 14th century, the hōate appears, and according to Tom Conlan, this development is behind decreased facial wound statistics. However, others, such as Yamagishi Sumio, believe that the hōate was not widespread at that time, as it—and the later menpō—restricted the vision of the wearer. Hōate are also portrayed in art and literature of the period, most notably the Aki no yo no Nagamonogatari scroll and Taiheiki. The menpō (half-mask with detachable nosepiece) and the sōmen (full face mask) are believed to have been introduced around the mid to late 15th century, and the hanbō (chin guard) in the second half of the 16th century.

The current FX series 'Shogun' by Robert Clavell is based on the true story of William Adams and the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyesu, and apart from being one of the very best film series yet made, it shows superbly and relatively accurately the machinations of the Catholic Jesuits to manipulate the Japanese Regents and their Christian convert samurai Lords.

Oda Nobunaga (1534–82) had taken his first step toward uniting Japan as the first missionaries landed, and as his power increased he encouraged the growing Kirishitan movement as a means of subverting the great political strength of Buddhism. Oppressed peasants welcomed the gospel of salvation, but merchants and trade-conscious daimyos saw Christianity as an important link with valuable European trade. Oda’s successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537–98), was much cooler toward the alien religion. The Japanese were becoming aware of competition between the Jesuits and the Franciscans and between Spanish and Portuguese trading interests. Toyotomi questioned the reliability of subjects with some allegiance to the foreign power at the Vatican. In 1587 he ordered all foreign missionaries to leave Japan but did not enforce the edict harshly until a decade later, when nine missionaries and 17 native Kirishitan were martyred.

After Toyotomi’s death and the brief regency of his adopted child, the pressures relaxed. However, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who founded the great Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1867), gradually came to see the foreign missionaries as a threat to political stability. By 1614, through his son and successor, Tokugawa Hidetada, he banned Kirishitan and ordered the missionaries expelled. Severe persecution continued for a generation under his son and grandson. Kirishitan were required to renounce their faith on pain of exile or torture. Every family was required to belong to a Buddhist temple, and periodic reports on them were expected from the temple priests.

By 1650 all known Kirishitan had been exiled or executed. Undetected survivors were driven underground into a secret movement that came to be known as Kakure Kirishitan (“Hidden Christians”), existing mainly in western Kyushu island around Nagasaki and Shimabara. To avoid detection they were obliged to practice deceptions such as using images of the Virgin Mary disguised as the popular and merciful Bōsatsu (bodhisattva) Kannon, whose gender is ambiguous and whom carvers often render as female.

The populace at large remained unaware that the Kakure Kirishitan managed to survive for two centuries, and when the prohibition against Roman Catholics began to ease again in the mid-19th century, arriving European priests were told there were no Japanese Christians left. A Roman Catholic church set up in Nagasaki in 1865 was dedicated to the 26 martyrs of 1597, and within the year 20,000 Kakure Kirishitan dropped their disguise and openly professed their Christian faith. They faced some repression during the waning years of the Tokugawa shogunate, but early in the reforms of the emperor Meiji (reigned 1867–1912) the Kirishitan won the right to declare their faith and worship publicly.

The interior lining and cords of this kabuto have been replaced in the past 100 years  read more

Code: 25202

7450.00 GBP

An Exceptionally Beautiful Gold Hilted Sword With ‘Laminated Damascus’ Pattern Steel Blade. A Sword of Highest Museum Quality. An Indian Prince's Tulwar, Accompanied With His Oriental Annual 1838

An Exceptionally Beautiful Gold Hilted Sword With ‘Laminated Damascus’ Pattern Steel Blade. A Sword of Highest Museum Quality. An Indian Prince's Tulwar, Accompanied With His Oriental Annual 1838

A Maharajah's royal gold tulwar, with its superb running damascus steel blade, with a dominant flowing grain, and its engraved gold hilt in traditional Indo Persian tulwar style, finely decorated with scroll engraving and traditional oriental flowers. Mounted in its original velvet scabbard [now a little faded] with single gold hanging mount and gold chape. A royal tulwar such as the Maharajah Duleep Singh may have once worn as a boy, or, worn by a similar ranking Moghul prince. The gold on the hilt and mounts are applied sheets of hammered gold that are overlaid onto a steel base for additional strength.

A most fine gifted book with its companion fabulous sword with brown leather binding and gold title, with embossed pure gold leaf elephant and howdah to front and back covers. Scenes of India by Reverand Hobart Caunter B.D. with 22 engravings from drawings by Willian Daniell R.A.

We show a Victorian painting of the Maharajah Duleep Singh with his royal tulwar, who became the Sikh ruler of the Punjab when he was no more than a child. But with family intrigues and treachery never being far behind (not to mention the fact that the Punjab was such a valuable territory, dividing India from Afghanistan - the passage through which the Russians might threaten to enter India and therefore endanger the British rule) in due course the Punjab was annexed at the end of the second Anglo Sikh war. In 1849, when that short war ended, the boy maharajah gave up this throne to be raised by a British army officer, in whose care he eventually converted to Christianity - after which he was sent to England and raised as a gentleman aristocrat, well away from those who might have sought to use him as a political pawn. He became a very great favourite of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. The portrait of Duleep above was painted by Victoria who called the prince her 'beautiful boy' and who often had him accompany her own family on holidays spent in the Isle of Wight. A sword brought to England in the time of the Raj. It is important to note that the Raj (in Hindi meaning 'to rule' or 'kingdom') never encompassed the entire land mass of the sub-continent.
Two-fifths of the sub-continent continued to be independently governed by over 560 large and small principalities, some of whose rulers had fought the British during the 'Great Rebellion', but with whom the Raj now entered into treaties of mutual cooperation.
The 'Great Rebellion' occurred in 1858 and saw the end of the East India Company and the creation of the Raj
Indeed the conservative elites of princely India and big landholders were to prove increasingly useful allies, who would lend critical monetary and military support during the two World Wars.
Hyderabad for example was the size of England and Wales combined, and its ruler, the Nizam, was the richest man in the world.
The word maharaja, literally great king, conjures up a vision of splendour and magnificence. The image of a turbaned, bejewelled ruler with absolute authority and immense wealth is pervasive and evocative, but it fails to do justice to his role in the cultural and political history of India.


From the beginning of the 18th century to the mid-20th century the changing role of the maharajas and their patronage of the arts, both in India and Europe, resulted in the production of splendid and beautiful objects symbolic of royal status, power and identity.
The secular and sacred power of an Indian king was expressed most spectacularly in the grand public processions that celebrated royal events and religious festivities. Riding a richly caparisoned elephant or horse, the ruler was lavishly dressed and jewelled and surrounded by attendants bearing symbolic attributes of kingship: a royal parasol, royal tulwar or dagger, chauri, fans and staffs of authority.The vision of a king in all his splendour was believed to be auspicious. It was central to the concept of darshan, the propitious act of seeing and being seen by a superior being, whether a god or a king. Although originally a Hindu notion, the idea of darshan became an integral aspect of kingship throughout the subcontinent. In India rulers were expected to exercise rajadharma, meaning the duties and behaviour appropriate to a king. These would include the protection of their subjects, the adjudication of disputes, and the ministering of justice and punishment. Martial skills were as important as administrative and diplomatic ones; as well as being wise and benevolent, kings were expected to be fierce warriors and skilled hunters. Rajadharma was also exercised through the patronage of poets, musicians, architects, artists, craftsmen and religious foundations. It was often the case, especially in the old days of empire, where student princes presented gifts of esteem such as these to favoured tutors at oxbridge.
Overall in scabbard 26.75 inches, blade 22.25 inches.  read more

Code: 22607

8950.00 GBP

An Original, Incredibly Rare  'Damascus' Presentation Sword, Presented to the German Fuhrer of 1898, An Imperial German, Damascus Steel, Blue & Gilt, Presentation Fuhrer's Sword. Set With Genuine Rubies and Silver Crossed Cannon

An Original, Incredibly Rare 'Damascus' Presentation Sword, Presented to the German Fuhrer of 1898, An Imperial German, Damascus Steel, Blue & Gilt, Presentation Fuhrer's Sword. Set With Genuine Rubies and Silver Crossed Cannon

This is a magnificent example of one of the rarest most desirable and valuable German swords made in 200 years. The highest grade possible of German military sword to be commissioned during the 19th and 20th centuries, encompassing the Imperial, Weimar and Third Reich eras of Germany.

This fabulous sword was presented to the ‘Fuhrer’ of 1898, but that was not the last, far more infamous German ‘Fuhrer’ who achieved that title, the notorious Adolf Hitler. After Hitler, the title Fuhrer as an esteemed German rank of status and unlimited authority became forever tainted, and thus it died with him, never to be used again. But before his death in 1945 the highest ‘Fuhrer’ represented a highly respected and revered military and political rank in all Germany.

A 'Grosse Degan', translates to the ‘great size sword’ is around 50% heavier, wider and substantial, and a far superior quality than the regular officer’s sword of the day. Presented in the late 19th century, these significant and important Damascus swords were effectively, the swords of Kings, worn by the highest ranking officers [Generals, Field Marshals, Dukes and Kings] right through WW1 and also WW2. For example we show in the gallery Field Marshal von Kleist with his identical family sword, that was also an antique Imperial sabre, but worn by him in WW2.

Also, a photograph of His Majesty King George Vth [the Queen's grandfather] and Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia [King George's cousin] in their ceremonial Colonel-in-Chief uniforms. King George Vth is in his full dress ‘honorary’ Imperial German uniform [with pickelhaub helmet] and also wearing his identical grade of ‘Fuhrer’ sword to ours. Before WW2 it was common for foreign kings to be made honorary colonels to other countries regiments. For example until WW1 Kaiser Willhelm was an honorary colonel of a British regiment, the Kaiser’s Own.

The presentation inscription on the sword’s highest grade elite Damascus blade approximately translates to

"Given By The War Veterans of Stade to it's Beloved Fuhrer"

Super quality hilt with fine detailed chiselling of a lion's head pommel with genuine rubies for eyes [the rubies were examined and confirmed by our gemologist]. The quillon terminal is a further head of a lion, and the langet is mounted with a wreathed pair of crossed cannon. Silver wire bound horn grip and the knucklebow bears a portrait bust of the German Kaiser, Queen Victoria’s grandson.

The blade is further marked ‘Damast’. Damascus steel swords were the rarest and most highly prized swords ever made in Germany. A method of creating the finest possible steel, a method that was almost lost after WWI however, Reichmarshall Herman Goring made it his personal task, in the 1930’s, to find the finest blade smiths in Europe and to recreate the lost art of Damascus steel for his finest blades. He succeeded, and those surviving German Damast steel edged weapons, also embellished with gold, such as this sword, are now some of the most valuable ever produced during the 20th century.

Wilhelm II or William II (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preu?en; Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; 27 January 1859 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Prince's Palace in Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia (the future Frederick III) and his wife, Victoria, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, and his grandfather and namesake Wilhelm was acting as Regent. He was the first grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, but more importantly, as the first son of the Crown Prince of Prussia, Wilhelm was from 1861 second in the line of succession to Prussia, and also, after 1871, to the newly created German Empire, which, according to the constitution of the German Empire, was ruled by the Prussian King.

Crowned in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 and launched Germany on a "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led in a matter of days to the First World War. No Scabbard.  read more

Code: 22370

7995.00 GBP

A Stunning Condition & Very Fine Original Antique Bowie Knife by Manson of Sheffield, An Absolute Delightful Piece of American Civil War History

A Stunning Condition & Very Fine Original Antique Bowie Knife by Manson of Sheffield, An Absolute Delightful Piece of American Civil War History

19th century, a British import from the US Civil War period into the Wild West period. With almost all its original bright polish finish on the blade. Frosted etched motto "Never Draw Me Without Reason Nor Sheath Me Without Honour". Original nickel mounted scabbard in tooled red leather. Embossed grave vine pattern handle

The term "Bowie knife" appeared in advertising by 1835, about 8 years after the Bowie's famous sandbar knife brawl, while James Bowie was still alive. The first knife, with which Bowie became famous, allegedly was designed by Jim Bowie's brother Rezin in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana and smithed by blacksmith Jesse Clift out of an old file. Period court documents indicate that Rezin Bowie and Clifft were well acquainted with one another. Rezin's granddaughter claimed in an 1885 letter to Louisiana State University that she personally witnessed Clift make the knife for her grandfather.
This knife became famous as the knife used by Bowie at the Sandbar Fight, a famous 1827 duel between Bowie and several men including a Major Norris Wright of Alexandria, Louisiana. The fight took place on a sandbar in the Mississippi River across from Natchez, Mississippi, and is the only documented fight in which Bowie was known to have employed his Bowie knife design. In this battle Bowie was stabbed, shot, and beaten half to death but managed to win the fight using the large knife.
From context, "Bowie knife" needed no description then, but the spelling was variable. Among the first mentions was a plan to combine a Bowie knife and pistol. Cutlers were shipping sheath knives from Sheffield England by the early 1830s. By 1838 a writer in a Baltimore newspaper (posted from New Orleans) suggested that every reader had seen a Bowie knife.

The Bowie knife found its greatest popularity in the Old Southwest of the mid-19th century, where several knife fighting schools were established to teach students the art of fighting with the Bowie knife pattern.

Bowie knives had a role in the American conflicts of the nineteenth century. They are historically mentioned in the independence of Texas, in the Mexican War, the California gold rush, the civil strife in Kansas, the Civil War and later conflicts with the American Indians. John Brown (the abolitionist) carried a Bowie (which was taken by J. E. B. Stuart). John Wilkes Booth (assassin of Abraham Lincoln) dropped a large Bowie knife as he escaped. "Buffalo Bill" Cody reportedly scalped a sub-chief in 1876 in revenge for Custer (the Battle of War bonnet Creek).

The popularity of the Bowie knife declined late in the nineteenth century. Large calibre reliable revolvers were available by the mid-1870s, reducing a knife advantage. The frontier rapidly vanished, reducing the number of hunters and trappers. Large knives had limited utility, so Bowies shrunk.
This is a superb small example perfect for boot or ladies garter concealment. 9.75 inches overall, 5 inch blade. Only the scabbard throat button is lacking, very small grey finger print staining to small areas of the blade  read more

Code: 22760

875.00 GBP

A Most Rare & Beautiful US Civil War Moore's Patent 32 Cal. 'Teat Fire' Revolver.

A Most Rare & Beautiful US Civil War Moore's Patent 32 Cal. 'Teat Fire' Revolver.

A rare Moore's patent .32 cal. Teat Fire revolver. Finely engraved silver plated frame, birds head butt. Good action. Fine over lacquered grips. The Teat Fire system, patented by Moore, was a most unusual front loading cartridge action, and his .45 calibre version, of the same action gun, is one of the rarest and most collectable guns of that era. Designed and made in 1864, during the Civil War, this is a very fine pocket sized revolver that saw much good service as a back-up or defensive arm for officers, and was very popular with riverboat and saloon gamblers, such as Doc Holliday and George Devol. There is a picture of an antique 19th century poster advertising Devol's gambling book. For information only not included. It utilized a special .32 caliber teat-fire cartridge designed by Daniel Moore and David Williamson. It was loaded from the front with the "teat" to the rear.
This 6 shot revolver has a 3?" barrel. Overall it measures 7-1/8" It has a fine silver plated frame. The barrel has some remaining original deep blue finish. The bird's head butt has 2 piece walnut grips. This model has a small hinged swivel gate on the right side of the barrel lug in front of the cylinder that prevents the cartridges from falling out after they are inserted.
The barrel markings are "MOORE'S PAT. FIREARMS CO. BROOKLYN, N.Y.", in a single line on the top. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables  read more

Code: 22540

795.00 GBP

A Stunning & Rare Victorian US Civil War Period 'Whitworth' Rifle, One Of The Best Condition Examples We Have See in Over 20 Years

A Stunning & Rare Victorian US Civil War Period 'Whitworth' Rifle, One Of The Best Condition Examples We Have See in Over 20 Years

With an absolutely mouthwatering patina, as good as any Whitworth we have seen in the finest museum collections. Serial number 198. One of the most famous types of rifles used by snipers in the US Civil War in the 1860's. In fact they can be such a significant and rare weapon that with known Confederate provenence with correct serial numbering stamping and the like a Whitworth rifle value has been known to approach $100,000 in today's collectors market. Sadly, this fabulous arm has no known provenence surviving, however, it is a most intriguing and an even rarer example in some respects, in that it was converted in the 1870's to the improved 'Snider' breech loading configuration. We have never seen another surviving example of a Snider converted 'Whitworth' rifle before in over 50 years. From hundreds of yards away, a Confederate sharpshooter carefully aimed his prized Whitworth, the crosshairs of its Davidson telescopic sight outlined against the ramparts of Fort Stevens in Washington, D.C. Through the scope?fitted to the left side of the stock?his eye scanned the ample crowd of Union soldiers and plucky civilians who had ventured by, hoping to observe warfare up close. Suddenly, the shooter?s attention shifted to a tall bearded man wearing a stovepipe hat, realizing it was that Yankee president, within easy range of his English-made precision rifle. As he prepared to fire, though, a Federal officer dragged Abraham Lincoln out of view. When issued, the rifles came with specific rules of engagement. The Whitworth sharpshooter would only use his gun against high-value targets. Artillery positions, cavalry scouts, exposed officers, and enemy sharpshooters were fair game. Furthermore, they were free to operate independently, choosing their own targets and locations on the battlefield. Some Confederate generals?especially Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne of the Army of Tennessee consolidated their sharpshooters into dedicated companies, using them to divert enemy forces where needed.

While many high-ranking Union officers had fallen victim to sharpshooters armed with Whitworth rifles, Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick, in command of the 6th Corps at Spotsylvania, was the most noteworthy witness to their effectiveness. Sedgwick was no stranger to enemy bullets, having been wounded several times prior to Spotsylvania. Ironically, he was hit but not injured by a spent bullet on May 8, 1864. The next day, his luck ran out. The story of the Whitworth and the Civil War; What the Confederacy needed as it prepared for war was a means of equalizing the disparity in arms fielded by the industrially superior North. Unable to produce what they needed, the South looked abroad. Arms buyers secretly visiting Great Britain obtained contracts for hundreds of thousands of regular P1853 Enfield rifles, and many other munitions that could be sent home by blockade-runners. But the available Whitworths were costly and difficult to come by.

Under wartime conditions, the price of a Whitworth rifle quickly jumped from $100 to $500, then again to $1,000 an expensive proposition considering how many regular muskets and rifles that same sum could buy, a Colt revolver in 1863 for example was just $20, and that was considered an expensive pistol at the time. $1,000 then was a simply mind boggling sum by today's standards. The Whitworth projectiles made by swaging, a unique forging process were difficult for the South to manufacture, so cylindrical bullet molds were added to shipments to supplement the smaller stores of hexagonal ammunition. These cylindrical molds then went to Southern arsenals to produce additional loads for distribution once the British rounds had run out. Overall 52 inches long As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables  read more

Code: 23154

5750.00 GBP

A Fine & Very Rare WWI Prussian Regimental Officer’s Sword of The 2nd Imperial Garde Uhlan Lancers Regiment

A Fine & Very Rare WWI Prussian Regimental Officer’s Sword of The 2nd Imperial Garde Uhlan Lancers Regiment

Fully etched blade with the Imperial Garde Garter Star motif and regimental name of the [Imperial Prussian] Garde 2nd Uhlan Regiment. The Imperial German Garde were the regiments that composed the elite bodyguard regiments of the Kaiser.

The regiment of Field Marshal Schlieffen, inventor of the world renown military tactic, the ‘Schlieffen Plan’

Included in the officers of the 2nd Garde Uhlans was Field Marshal Count Alfred Graf von Schlieffen who joined the 2nd Garde Uhlans as a young officer in Berlin. He first saw active war service as a staff officer with the Prussian Cavalry Corps, in the uhlans, at the Battle of Koniggratz of 1866, during the Austro-Prussian War. His career saw rapid promotion due to his obvious tactical skills. He became Lieutenant General on 4 December 1888, and eventually General of the Cavalry on 27 January 1893., followed by Field Marshal. Schlieffen was perhaps the best-known contemporary strategist of his time, although criticized for his "narrow-minded military scholasticism." In World War I the regiment was part of the Guards Cavalry Division fighting on the Western Front. After the mobilization the regiment moved through Belgium and was involved in the First Battle of the Marne before the general retreat to Reims, where it dismounted and was involved in trench warfare as well as signaling operations. By September 1914, the regiment was divided, with 3rd and 4th Squadrons (2nd half-regiment) sent to the 2nd Cavalry Division and the 1st and 2nd Squadrons (1st half-regiment) remaining in the 2nd Guards Infantry Division.

1st half-regiment: On 20 November 1914, it moved into Russian Poland and by August 1915 moved into Vilna, as a part of the Gorlice?Tarn?w Offensive. By the end of October 1915, the half-regiment was involved in operations in Courland and was involved in the capture of Riga in September 1917. In November 1917, the unit moved back to the Western Front where they remained till the end of the war.

2nd half-regiment: It remained first on the Western Front and in April 1915 was transferred to Galicia, but soon returned to the Western Front. In 1917 it again returned to the Eastern Front in action around Vilna before returning to the West, where it remained until the end of the war.

After the end of the war, in December 1918 the squadrons reunified and returned to Berlin, where the regiment was demobilized and then dissolved in 1919.

Schlieffen's operational theories were to have a profound impact on the development of maneuver warfare in the twentieth century, largely through his seminal treatise, Cannae, which concerned the decidedly un-modern battle of 216 BC in which Hannibal defeated the Romans. Cannae had two main purposes. First, it was to clarify, in writing, Schlieffen's concepts of maneuver, particularly the maneuver of encirclement, along with other fundamentals of warfare. Second, it was to be an instrument for the Staff, the War Academy, and for the Army all together. Schlieffen held that the destruction of an attacking force required that it be surrounded and attacked from all sides until it surrendered, and not merely repulsed as in a 'passive' defence: His theories were studied exhaustively, especially in the higher army academies of the United States and Europe after World War I. American military thinkers thought so highly of him that his principal literary legacy, Cannae, was translated at Fort Leavenworth and distributed within the U.S. Army and to the academic community. In 1914, the Imperial German Army included twenty-six Uhlan regiments, three of which were Guard regiments, twenty-one line (sixteen Prussian, two Wurttemberg and three Saxon) and two from the autonomous Royal Bavarian Army. All German Uhlan regiments wore Polish style czapkas and tunics with plastron fronts, both in coloured parade uniforms and the field grey service dress introduced in 1910. Because German hussar, dragoon and cuirassier regiments also carried lances in 1914, there was a tendency among their French and British opponents to describe all German cavalry as "uhlans". No scabbard.  read more

Code: 22670

1495.00 GBP

A Fabulous, and Rare,  19th Century Imperial Russo-Prussian Grenadier's Mitre Cap

A Fabulous, and Rare, 19th Century Imperial Russo-Prussian Grenadier's Mitre Cap

A most rarely surviving form of European service helmet. The highly distinctive mitre cap was in use by grenadier regiments of three principle nations [mostly British, Prussian and Russian] since the mid 18th century, they were used continually by the Russo-Prussians alone into the Napoleonic wars, in the early 19th century, right though in fact to the early 20th century, but they ceased to be used by the British in the end of the 18th century. The mitre cap is an extraordinary form of helmet that was both elaborate and decorative but also as a form of intimidation, to increase the perception of the height of a grenadier, yet still most functional for defence against sword cuts and slashes. Wih the helmets construction, a combination of cloth and pressed metal, creating a most effective ‘crumple zone’ against a slashing blade impact upon the soldiers head. The rarest of all the surviving mitre caps is beyond doubt the British, as they were in use for the shortest period of time and were entirely made of cloth, and that material survives poorly over 3 centuries. The Russian and Prussian examples had elements of metal within the helmets stamped crest frontispieces and frame, and, they were in use for longer, some into the WW1 period. However, all surviving examples are now very scarce indeed, and complete examples are most especially rare. The 18th and 19th century examples being the most rarest of all. The mitre cap, whether in stiffened cloth or metal, had become the distinguishing feature of the grenadier in the armies of Britain, Russia, Prussia and most German states during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. While Northern-European armies such as Britain, Russia, Sweden and various German states (perhaps most famously Prussia) wore the mitre cap, the southern countries, such as France, Spain, Austria, Portugal and various Italian states preferred the bearskin cap. By 1768 Britain too had adopted the bearskin. By the advent of the Napoleonic Wars, both mitres caps and fur caps had begun to fall out of use in favour of the shako. Two major exceptions were France's Grande Armee (although in 1812, regulations changed grenadier uniforms to those more similar to the ones of fusiliers, except in guard regiments) and the Austrian Army. After the Battle of Friedland in 1807, because of their distinguished performance, Russia's Pavlovsk Regiment were allowed to keep their mitre caps and were admitted to the Imperial Guard. In 1914 the Imperial German and Russian Armies still included a number of grenadier regiments. In the Russian Army these comprised the Grenadier Guards Regiment (L-G Grenadierski Polk) as well as the Grenadier Corps of sixteen regiments (plus an independent reinforced company of Palace Grenadiers, guarding the St. Petersburg Imperial residences). Five regiments of the Prussian Guard were designated as Garde-Grenadiers and there were an additional fourteen regiment of grenadiers amongst the line infantry of the German Empire. In both the Russian and German armies the grenadier regiments were considered a historic elite, distinguished by features such as plumed helmets in full dress, distinctive facings (yellow for all Russian grenadiers) or special braiding. A grenadier derived from the word grenade, and was originally a specialized soldier, first established as a distinct role in the mid-to-late 17th century, for the throwing of grenades and sometimes assault operations. At that time grenadiers were chosen from the strongest and largest soldiers. By the 18th century, dedicated grenade throwing of this sort was no longer relevant, but grenadiers were still chosen for being the most physically powerful soldiers and would lead assaults in the field of battle. Grenadiers would also often lead the storming of fortification breaches in siege warfare, although this role was more usually fulfilled by all-arm units of volunteers called forlorn hopes, and might also be fulfilled by sappers or pioneers. A very similar, near identical example appears illustrated and described in the The Lyle Official Arms and Armour Review 1983, page 261  read more

Code: 22034

3950.00 GBP

A Most Beautiful Tachi-kake Samurai Sword Stand With Maki-e Gold Nabeshima Clan Mon

A Most Beautiful Tachi-kake Samurai Sword Stand With Maki-e Gold Nabeshima Clan Mon

In black urushi lacquer, and It bears two mon, 'Daki Myoga' mon of the great Nebeshima clan. Two opposing ginger plants.

the Nabeshima clan did not take the name Nabeshima, however, until the late 15th century, when Shoni Shigenao established himself at Nabeshima in Hizen province (today part of Saga City, Saga prefecture). Later, in the Sengoku period (1467-1603), the Nabeshima were one of a number of clans which clashed over the island. The Nabeshima sided with the Ryuzoji clan against the Otomo clan, though this ultimately ended in failure and the death of Ryuzoji Takanobu at the 1584 battle of Okita Nawate. Several years later, however, the Nabeshima recovered power and prominence by aiding Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his 1587 invasion of Kyushu; Nabeshima Naoshige was granted the region of Saga as his fief, as a reward for his efforts. Naoshige also contributed to Hideyoshi's invasions of Korea in the 1590s.

The clan initially aided Ishida Mitsunari against Tokugawa Ieyasu in the Sekigahara Campaign in 1600. However, they switched sides to support the Tokugawa, who were ultimately victorious, before the campaign had ended, battling and occupying the forces of Tachibana Muneshige, who was thus prevented from contributing directly to the battle of Sekigahara. Though regarded as tozama daimyo ("outside" lords), and assigned particularly heavy corvee duties, the Nabeshima were allowed to keep their territory in Saga, and in fact had their kokudaka increased. The clan's forces served the new Tokugawa shogunate loyally in the years which followed; they remained in Kyushu during the 1615 Osaka Campaign as a check against a possible rebellion or uprising by the Shimazu clan, and aided in the suppression of the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637. In recognition of their service, members of the clan were granted the prestigious family name Matsudaira in 1648.

During the Edo period, the clan's Saga domain became quite famous.

28 inches high overall, base 10 inches wide x 13.25 depth inches  read more

Code: 24456

1350.00 GBP

An Iconic Symbol of Antique Weaponry, and An Exceptionally Fine 18th Century Brass Cannon-Barrel ‘Royal Navy’ Form Blunderbuss by John Rea of London

An Iconic Symbol of Antique Weaponry, and An Exceptionally Fine 18th Century Brass Cannon-Barrel ‘Royal Navy’ Form Blunderbuss by John Rea of London

A very fine example with finest juglans regia walnut stock with exceptional patina, fine brass furniture finely engraved throughout. Acorn finial trigger guard and brass cannon barrel with Tower proofs. This blunderbuss is of the so-called "cannon mouth" pattern. It is typical of the British Naval blunderbuss and dates from circa 1780. This type of weapon fires a multitude of shot about .25 inch in diameter. John Rea is listed as working in London from 1782 to 1793. The Blunderbuss (born of the Dutch word "Donderbus", appropriately meaning "Thunder Pipe" or "Thunder Gun") came to prominence in the early part of the 18th Century (1701-1800) and was more akin to the modern day shotgun than a "long gun" musket or heavy pistol of the time.

As such, she excelled in close-in fighting, be it within the confines of naval warfare where her spread of shot could inflict maximum damage to targets at close ranges. Its manageable size, coupled with its spread shot, ensured some level of accuracy for even the novice user and its appearance was rather intimidating to those unfortunate enough to be staring down the business end.
Even George Washington championed the Blunderbuss

16 inch barrel 31 inches long overall. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables  read more

Code: 20654

SOLD