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Now Sold. A Superb Japanese Antique Kwaiken Aikuchi Tanto With Koto Blade

Kwaiken tantō carried and used by both men and women in the samurai era: in black lacquer aikuchi fittings with polished cabouchon amber menuki, and a gilt and copper saya mount of a flowering bean. The blade has around 90% original Edo polish, good early tang indicating it is many hundreds of years old, with a single mekugi ana and a very fine silver habaki incised with a raindrop pattern. The kuaiken (also kwaiken or futokoro-gatana) is a generally short tantō that is commonly carried in aikuchi or shirasaya mounts. It was useful for self-defense indoors where the long katana and intermediate wakizashi were inconvenient. A Kaiken or Kwaiken is also called futokoro-gatana which translates as “purse sword” or “pocket sword”. It is a tanto without overtly ornamental fittings, usually housed in relatively plain mounts. It is kept hidden in the sleeve or within the kimono. It was carried by both men and women, and samurai-class women were expected to carry one. A kaiken used by a lady in Japan is more likely to be for defense rather than suicide. A well brought up lady may only commit suicide if her honour is otherwise not going to remain intact (to avoid capture or worse]. The female form of seppuku is called Jigai. Ladies don’t disembowel themselves, they cut the carotid artery. Women carried them in the obi for self-defense and rarely for jigai (ritual suicide). A woman received a kaiken as part of her wedding gifts usually from her father in a special ceremony. This is one of the nicest and beautiful early examples we have seen in a long time. Overall 11.25 inches long, blade 7 inches long

Code: 23473


Suit Of Samurai Gesoku Armour With Momonari Peach Shaped Kabuto Helmet

In our opinion there is no greater aesthetically attractive suit of antique original armour to compare to the Japanese samurai armour. One can see them displayed in some of the finest locations of interior decor in the world today.

For example, in the Hollywood movies such as the James Bond films many of the main protagonists in those films decorated their lush and extravagant billionaire properties with samurai armours. They can be so dramatic and beautiful and even the simplest example can look spectacular in any correct location with good lighting. We even decorated a Russian billionaires yacht with samurai armours for a few of state rooms within the ship, they look truly incredible yet they were all relatively inexpensive compared to their European equivalent, that today can run into the hundreds of thousands of pounds. Edo period. Chain mail over silk Kote [arm armour] with plate Tekko [hand armour]. Fully laced and plate Sode [shoulder armour] Fully laced four panels of Haidate [waist armour] Fully laced Kasazuri [thigh Armour], with Suneate. A Stunning Samurai Edo Period Momonari [Peach Shaped] Kabuto Helmet
The momonari samurai kabuto (peach-shaped) is inspired by European helmets during the Momoyama period (1575 - 1615) mainly the morion and the cabasset. The Kachushi (Armour craftsmen) made them from two iron plates specifically joined together like the shell of a clam. They where designed specifically to deflect the bullets from the new muskets appearing on the field of battle brought by the Portuguese and Spanish. The momonari kabuto was made well known for its abilities on the battlefield during the campaign of Korea (1592-98) in Kyushu island. Hachi of black lacquer and red lacquer on the underside, small fukigaeshi, with shikoro of 5 lames, early lining with tying cord. Japanese helmets dating from the fifth century (long before the rise of the samurai class) have been found in excavated tombs. Called mabizashi-tsuke kabuto (visor-attached helmet), the style of these kabuto came from China and Korea and they had a pronounced central ridge. This armour is absolutely beautiful. Japanese armour is thought to have evolved from the armour used in ancient China and Korea. Cuirasses and helmets were manufactured in Japan as early as the 4th century.Tanko, worn by foot soldiers and keiko, worn by horsemen were both pre-samurai types of early Japanese cuirass constructed from iron plates connected together by leather thongs.

During the Heian period 794 to 1185 the Japanese cuirass evolved into the more familiar style of armour worn by the samurai known as the dou or do. Japanese armour makers started to use leather (nerigawa) and lacquer was used to weather proof the armor parts. By the end of the Heian period the Japanese cuirass had arrived at the shape recognized as being distinctly samurai. Leather and or iron scales were used to construct samurai armours, with leather and eventually silk lace used to connect the individual scales (kozane) which these cuirasses were now being made from.

In the 16th century Japan began trading with Europe during what would become known as the Nanban trade. Samurai acquired European armour including the cuirass and comb morion which they modified and combined with domestic armour as it provided better protection from the newly introduced matchlock muskets known as Tanegashima. The introduction of the tanegashima by the Portuguese in 1543 changed the nature of warfare in Japan causing the Japanese armour makers to change the design of their armours from the centuries old lamellar armours to plate armour constructed from iron and steel plates which was called tosei gusoku (new armours).Bullet resistant armours were developed called tameshi gusoku or (bullet tested) allowing samurai to continue wearing their armour despite the use of firearms.

The era of warfare called the Sengoku period ended around 1600, Japan was united and entered the peaceful Edo period, samurai continued to use both plate and lamellar armour as a symbol of their status but traditional armours were no longer necessary for battles. During the Edo period light weight, portable and secret hidden armours became popular as there was still a need for personal protection. Civil strife, duels, assassinations, peasant revolts required the use of armours such as the kusari katabira (chain armour jacket) and armoured sleeves as well as other types of armour which could be worn under ordinary clothing.Edo period samurai were in charge of internal security and would wear various types of kusari gusoku (chain armour) and shin and arm protection as well as forehead protectors (hachi-gane).

Armour continued to be worn and used in Japan until the end of the samurai era (Meiji period) in the 1860s, with the last use of samurai armour happening in 1877 during the Satsuma Rebellion. The armour has some affixing loops lacking. Stand for photo display only not included. This armour has areas of worn and distressed lacquer and areas of cloth/material that are perished due to it's great age as would be expected, but the condition simply adds to its beauty and aesthetic quality, displaying its position within its combat use in Japanese samurai warfare. We would always recommend, in our subjective opinion, that original antique samurai armour looks its very best left completely as is, with all it wear and age imperfections left intact. This armours helmet is shown seperately in the kabuto gallery.

Code: 21624

9350.00 GBP

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A Superb Pair of Red Lacquer on Steel Abumi Samurai Stirrups Edo Period Of The Chōsokabe Clan,

Simply stunning pieces of antique samurai armour, perfect for the collector of samuar swords armour and artifacts, or simply as fabulous object d'art, they would be spectacular decorative pieces in any setting, albeit to compliment contemporary minimalistic or fine antique decor of any period, oriental or European. Decorated at the front with a beautiful kamon [samurai clan crest] of the renown samurai Chōsokabe Clan. During the Japanese civil wars (1467-1568), red was revered by the samurai and worn as a symbol of strength and power in battle, in ancient times it was a lacquer called sekishitsu (a mixture of cinnabar and lacquer). For example it was the trademark colour of the armour of the Li clan, the so called Red Devil’s. In the Battle of Komaki Nagakute, fought in 1584, Ii Naomasa's clan fronted 3,000 matchlock gunmen, his front line forces up wearing what would become the clan’s trademark, bright red lacquered armour, with high horn-like helmet crests. Their fearsome fighting skills with the gun and long-spear, and their red armour had them become known as Ii’s Red Devils. He fought so well at Nagakute, that he was highly praised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi leader of the opposition! Ii Naomasa was known as one of the Four Guardians of the Tokugawa. The Chōsokabe clan (長 宗 我 部 氏Chōsokabe-shi ) , Also known as Chōsokame (長 曾 我 部 、 長 宗 我 部 ) , Was a Japanese clan from the island of Shikoku . Over time, they were known to serve the Hosokawa clan , then the Miyoshi clan, and then the Ichijō clan , 1 although they were later liberated and came to dominate the entire island, before being defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi . The clan claimed to be descendants of Qin Shi Huang (d. 210 BC), the first emperor of a unified China .

The clan is associated with the province of Tosa in present-day Kōchi prefecture on the island of Shikoku . Chōsokabe Motochika , who unified Shikoku, was the first twenty daimyo (or head) of the clan.

In the beginning of the Sengoku period , Chōsokabe Kunichika's father , Kanetsugu , was assassinated by the Motoyama clan in 1508. Therefore, Kunichika was raised by the aristocrat Ichijō Husaie of the Ichijō clan in Tosa province. Later, towards the end of his life, Kunichika avenged the Motoyama clan and destroyed with the help of Ichijō in 1560. Kunichika have children, including his heir and future daimyo of Chosokabe, Motochika, who continue unifying Shikoku.

First, the Ichijō family was overthrown by Motochika in 1574. Later, he gained control of the rest of Tosa due to his victory at the Battle of Watarigawa in 1575. Then he also destroyed the Kono clan and the Soga clan . Over the next decade, he extended his power to all of Shikoku in 1583. However, in 1585, Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( Oda Nobunaga's successor ) invaded the island with a force of 100,000 men, led by Ukita Hideie , Kobayakawa Takakage , Kikkawa Motonaga , Toyotomi Hidenaga and Toyotomi Hidetsugu . Motochika surrendered and lost the Awa provinces, Sanuki and Iyo ; Hideyoshi allowed him to retain Tosa. The smiths name Motochika was linked to the clan itself. The last picture In the gallery is of samurai Chōsokabe Morichika, ruler of Tosa province. His clan mon, that appears on the abumi and on the tanto on the habaki, can be seen on the collar of his garb, As ruler of Tosa Province, in 1614 he went to join the defenders of Osaka Castle against the Tokugawa, he arriving there the same day as Sanada Yukimura. His Chōsokabe contingent fought very well in both the Winter and Summer at Osaka Campaigns. After the fall of Osaka, Morichika attempted to flee but was apprehended at Hachiman-yama by Hachisuka men, He and his sons were beheaded on May 11, 1615, following the defeat of the Toyotomi and Chōsokabe forces at the Battle of Tennōji. We acquired these abumi with tanto of the 1390's of the same clan, but sold separately. These abumi are in super condition for age, certainly showing signs of use on horseback but these slight wear marks etc. perfectly compliment their provenance for display.

Code: 23472

3750.00 GBP

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Fit For A Prince, An 18th-19th Century Mughal Wootz Steel & Gold Dagger

A wonderful antique khanjar dagger with a solid steel hilt decorated with chisselled flower heads within an islamic geometric cartouche form pattern, with scrolling acanthus leaves and flowers at the ricasso of the wootz Damascus blade, overalid with fine gold koftgari. In the conservation workshop. The wootz blade is in the typical recurved form shape with an armour piercing tip. This antique weapon was employed by the Mughal effectively in its battles with the Safavid and Ottoman Empires. The arm was particularly adept at piercing the armor of enemy combatants.

Developed originally in India, wootz steel technology features a system of isolating micro carbides within a matrix of tempered martensite. The ancient metalwork specialist Herbert Maryon of the British Museum in London described the metal technique as: the undulations of the steel resemble a net across running water [the pattern] waved like watered silk it was mottled like the grains of yellow sand. With roots in the Tamil Nudu region of the sub-continent, the technology was considered the most effective in the world for maximizing armor piercing potential. The indigenous Indian population presented the invading armies of Alexander the Great with tribute ingots of wootz around 300 B.C. From there, the process was refined over time throughout the world in Damascus, Syria; continental Europe; and later Great Britain, where the process underpinned the Industrial Revolution that began in the 18th century. The Rajahs of India submitted tulwars, shamshirs, khanjars, in addition to other ancient swords and daggers manufactured with wootz to the International Exhibition of 1851 and 1862, whereby the pieces become coveted for the quality of their steel.

Code: 20674

2950.00 GBP

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A Rare WW1 Royal Flying Corps Creagh Osbourne Air Compass For Fighters

In it's original case, with mounting base plate and screws. Constructed of brass, aluminum, and glass, the compass proper is supported by three arms projecting horizontally from a vertical circular aluminum base plate. Baseplate has four holes for mounting to A/C instrument panel. Compass is ball shaped, with glass viewing port. A brass correction device is brazed to the top of the compass. A circular compass needle is mounted on a needle point inside the compass body, with enamelled direction marks. The viewing glass is held in place by a brass retaining ring, which is marked: "Air Compass Type 5/17 No. 44693H." An ID plate is mounted on the base plate and marked "H. Hughes & Son Ltd./ London/ Creagh Osbourne/ Patent 1148/ 15, 17736/ 15??It is set in it's original RFC wooden case with affixing screws for the aircraft and an attached small electrical wired tube with screw thread." Captain Frank Osborne Creagh-Osborne (1867/1943) was Superintendent of Compasses at the Admiralty and a British inventor. He developed several compass systems which were manufactured by H. Hughes & Son Ltd, Dent & Co & Johnson Ltd and also by Sperry Gyroscopes and wrote several books about the development and use of aerocompassesHenry Hughes was born in 1816. In 1838 Henry Hughes & Son was founded at 120 (later at 59), Fenchurch Street, London as a maker of chronographs and scientific instruments. Henry died in 1879 and his son Alexander J. succeeded him as chairman. The firm was incorporated as Henry Hughes & Son Ltd in 1903. Hughes & Son worked together with Captn. Creagh-Osborne among other inventors. During the early part of the war, the RFC supported the British Army by artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance. This work gradually led RFC pilots into aerial battles with German pilots and later in the war included the strafing of enemy infantry and emplacements, the bombing of German military airfields and later the strategic bombing of German industrial and transportation facilities.

At the start of World War I the RFC, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, consisted of five squadrons ? one observation balloon squadron (RFC No 1 Squadron) and four aeroplane squadrons. These were first used for aerial spotting on 13 September 1914, but only became efficient when they perfected the use of wireless communication at Aubers Ridge on 9 May 1915. Aerial photography was attempted during 1914, but again only became effective the next year. By 1918, photographic images could be taken from 15,000 feet, and interpreted by over 3,000 personnel. Parachutes were not available to pilots of the RFC's heavier than air craft ? nor were they used by the RAF during the First World War ? although the Calthrop Guardian Angel parachute (1916 model) was officially adopted just as the war ended. By this time parachutes had been used by balloonists for three years.

On 17 August 1917, South African General Jan Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power. Because of its potential for the 'devastation of enemy lands and the destruction of industrial and populous centres on a vast scale', he recommended a new air service be formed that would be on a level with the Army and Royal Navy. The formation of the new service would, moreover, make the under utilised men and machines of the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) available for action across the Western Front, as well as ending the inter service rivalries that at times had adversely affected aircraft procurement. On 1 April 1918, the RFC and the RNAS were amalgamated to form a new service, the Royal Air Force (RAF). The RAF was under the control of the new Air Ministry. After starting in 1914 with some 2,073 personnel, by the start of 1919 the RAF had 4,000 combat aircraft and 114,000 personnel in some 150 squadrons.

Code: 20175

1650.00 GBP

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A King Airship Co. of Washington, Historic Stock Certificate August 1920

On December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers were the first to fly in a powered and controlled aircraft. Previous flights were lighter than air vehicles, gliders (control but no power) or free flight (power but no control), but the Wright brothers combined both, setting the new standard in aviation records.

There have been many booms and busts in the aviation industry. The earliest known aviation stock certificate for a company that actually made a flying airship called the Novelty Air Ship Company in 1888. The Novelty Air Ship Company manufactured the vehicle for Professor Peter C. Campbell who was the inventor. Unfortunately, the air ship was lost at sea in 1889 while being test flown by Professor Hogan during an exhibition flight. This historic document was printed by the Goes Company and has an ornate border around it with a vignette of a Bald eagle. This item has the signatures of the Company?s Secretary and the President and is over 93 years old.

Code: 17807

235.00 GBP

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A Most Attractive Ancient Koto Period O-Tanto Large Dagger

Muromachi period made from 1392 to 1573. Wide O-Tanto blade with wide fuller to one sde and bo-hi on the alternate side. Clear hamon temper line with small combat impact dent to one side. Copper and silver inlaid original Edo period fushi kashira and pierced iron tsuba. Copper and gilt menuki under the original Edo silk binding over ginat rayskin. Original Edo period ishime brown stone lacquer to the saya.The tanto was invented partway through the Heian period. With the beginning of the Kamakura period, tanto were forged to be more aesthetically pleasing, and hira and uchi-sori tanto becoming the most popular styles. Near the middle of the Kamakura period, more tanto artisans were seen, increasing the abundance of the weapon, and the kanmuri-otoshi style became prevalent in the cities of Kyoto and Yamato. Because of the style introduced by the tachi in the late Kamakura period, tanto began to be forged longer and wider. The introduction of the Hachiman faith became visible in the carvings in the hilts around this time. The hamon (line of temper) is similar to that of the tachi, except for the absence of choji-midare, which is nioi and utsuri. Gunomi-midare and suguha are found to have taken its place.

During the era of the Northern and Southern Courts, the tanto were forged to be up to forty centimetres as opposed to the normal one shaku (about thirty centimetres) length. The blades became thinner between the uri and the omote, and wider between the ha and mune. At this point in time, two styles of hamon were prevalent: the older style, which was subtle and artistic, and the newer, more popular style. With the beginning of the Muromachi period, constant fighting caused the greater production of blades. Blades that were custom-forged still were of exceptional quality. As the end of the period neared, the average blade narrowed and the curvature shallowed

Code: 20587

1995.00 GBP

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A Beautiful Bizen Ancient Koto Katana, Circa 1380 Nambokochu Era

Made in the transitional period between Nambokochu and Muromachi. Super ancient narrow blade with wonderful curvature and typical narrow hamon of the Nambokochu era. Delightful original Edo fittings including its superb Edo lacquer saya with deep ribbing and a court cap pattern saya-jiri [bottom chape mount]. The iron fushi kashira have pure gold inlaid ancient kinbuntai kanji. The iron tsuba is beautifully chisseled with crisp edges. Looking at the late Nanbokucho period, the main Bizen smiths last signed eras (the last dated examples do not always coincide with the end of the smith’s career) were Joji for Motoshige, Koryaku for Chogi, and Oei for Omiya Morishige. Many of the Bizen dates moved up to Eiwa, Koryaku, Eitoku, Shitoku, Kakei, Ko-o, and Meitoku, and the tachi shapes changed to become narrower. Chogi’s Koryaku era tachi are narrow, but without other style changes. Morikage’s work from the end of the Nanbokucho period have a narrow shape with small hamon which is similar to Kosori work. Also, there are many Bizen smiths who are not belong to famous schools and do not have a clear school style and people called all of these smiths Kosori smiths. Overall, at the end of the Nanbukucho period, Bizen swords became narrower, and at the same time, the mainstream school’s characteristics gradually disappeared and a smaller hamon become popular. As is often with ancient swords the story of it's use starts in the era before it was actually made, by it's master smith, maybe a decade earlier in the Nanboku-cho period (Northern and Southern Courts period) Spanning from 1336 to 1392, it was a period that occurred during the formative years of the Muromachi
bakufu of Japan's history.
The Imperial seats during the Nanboku-cho period were in relatively close proximity, but
geographically distinct. They were conventionally identified as:
Northern capital : Kyoto
Southern capital : Yoshino.
During this period, there existed a Northern Imperial Court, established by Ashikaga Takauji in Kyoto, and a Southern Imperial Court, established by Emperor Go-Daigo in Yoshino.
Ideologically, the two courts fought for fifty years, with the South giving up to the North in 1392.
However, in reality the Northern line was under the power of the Ashikaga shoguns and had little real independence. This sword would very likely have been used in the Onin War (1467-1477) which led to serious political fragmentation and obliteration of domains: a great struggle for land and power ensued among bushi chieftains and lasted until the mid-sixteenth century. Peasants rose against their landlords and samurai against their overlords, as central control virtually disappeared. The shugo daimyo were the first group of men to hold the title "daimyo". They arose from among the shugo during the Muromachi period. The shugo daimyo held not only military and police powers, but also economic power within a province. They accumulated these powers throughout the first decades of the Muromachi period.
Major shugo daimyo came from the Shiba, Hatakeyama, and Hosokawa clans, as well as the tozama clans of Yamana, Ouchi, and Akamatsu. The greatest ruled multiple provinces.

Code: 20545

4995.00 GBP

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A Super, Original, ‘Wild West’ Period, Colt Single Action Army Revolver

6 Shot .44” Colt Army Single Action Percussion Revolver (matching serial numbers), round barrel stamped ADDRESS COL. SAML COLT NEW-YORK U.S. AMERICA, underlever rammer, frame stamped COLTS PATENT, stepped cylinder roll engraved with naval scene and COLTS PATENT, PATENTED SEPT 10TH 1850, brass trigger guard, iron grip strap, one piece wooden grip inlaid with home-made heart and diamond-shaped silver escutcheons prick engraved with owner’s initials J.T.B. The silver escutcheons are a super addition to this handsome revolver and add an invaluable addition by way of its provenance by the use of its owner in the wild West period. Although unlikely it might be interesting to research and see if one can find to whom the initials may refer to, there are other engravings which are difficult to decipher but also may reveal some intriguing potential to its history. The Colt single action army has one other fine attribute, in that it feels wonderful when held in the hand, so beautifully balanced and ergonomically designed, it really is a delight to hold, and there is no other revolver [apart from its cousin the Colt single action Navy] that feels quite like it.

This original 1860 model Colt Army 44 cal. revolver would be a most fine addition to, or start of, any collection of fine arms, a delightful revolver of American history, with a very strong spring action and average age wear.This is the largest percussion calibre of pistol made by Colt in the world renown 'Wild West' era, and one of the most popular types of Colt revolver of the Civil War, used by both combatant sides of the Union and the Confederacy. As the successor to the big Colt Dragoon, this sleek and handsome hogleg packed plenty of power but was easier to handle. Colt’s 1860 was used by the U.S. Cavalry, the Texas Rangers and General Ben McCulloch’s Texas Confederates, Wells Fargo detective James Hume, Mormon “Avenging Angel” Porter Rockwell, El Paso City Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire, the James brothers Jesse James and Frank James, Wes Hardin, Sam Bass and scores of good and bad men. A true icon of 19th century America and one of the most famous and best Colt revolvers of it's type ever made. It had the greatest stopping power, and was a very popular and highly effective pistol from the Civil War, and into the Wild West era. There were many, many world famous officers and cowboys who used this very form of revolver, and Jesse James was photographed wearing several of them which he captured in combat fighting for the Confederacy in 1864 with Quantrill's Raiders. It was favoured as a side arm by cavalry, infantry, and artillery troops.

Around 200,000 were manufactured from 1860 through 1873. Colt's biggest customer was the US Government with over 127,000 units being purchased and issued to the troops. The weapon was a single-action, six-shot weapon accurate up to 75 to 100 yards, where the fixed sights were typically set when manufactured. The rear sight was a notch in the hammer, clearly visible only when the revolver was cocked.

The Colt .44-calibre “Army" Model was one of the most widely used revolvers of the Civil War. It was the revolver of choice for officers, artillerymen, and cavalrymen. The Colt .44 had a six-shot, rotating cylinder. It fired a 0.454-inch diameter round lead ball, or a conical projectile, that was propelled by a 30 grain charge of black powder ignited by a brass percussion cap that was struck by the hammer. When fired, balls had a muzzle velocity of about 750 feet per second.
Barrel 8 inch barrel overall 13.75 inches long. Good condition, usual wear overall. Good tight action. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23465

3250.00 GBP

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A 'Tower of London' Brown Bess Musket, Napoleonic Wars Period Early India Pattern' & Bayonet

Probably the most famous military flintlock musket in the world today, and certainly one of the most historically important and desirable long guns of its type from the Napoleonic wars.

A typical Napoleonic Wars regiment of the line issue musket, Crown GR and Tower swan neck cock lock with government inspectors stamps, regulation brass mounts, iron ramrod, sling swivels and triangular socket bayonet stamped EX by G Salter & Co. This may be a mark for the Essex regiment, the 44th foot. Walnut stock with usual signs of combat use bruising etc as one can expect.The Brown Bess musket began its life almost 300 years ago, and it helped in creating one of the greatest trading empires the world has ever seen and, among other achievements, made the 'British Square' the almost undefeated form of infantry defence throughout the world. Made in four distinct patterns it originally started life as a 46 inch barrel musket called the Long Land or Ist pattern [Brown Bess]. Then in around 1768 the gun evolved and the barrel was shortened to 42 inches [as 46 was deemed unwieldy] and renamed the Short Land or 2nd pattern. Although the Long Land was made continually for another 20 years. With the onset of the Napoleonic Wars in the 1790s, the British Board of Ordnance found itself woefully short of the 250,000 muskets it would need to equip its forces. It managed to produce around 20,000 short land pattern muskets but this was simply not sufficient. At that time the British East India Company maintained it own troops and had contracted with makers to produce a simplified version of the Brown Bess musket with a 39-inch barrel and less ornate furniture and stock work. It was generally felt that the standard of these "India pattern" muskets was not up to the standard of the earlier Besses, but necessity required action so the authorities convinced Company officials to turn over their stores to the Crown. By 1797 the urgencies of war ultimately created the demise of the Short Pattern, and all manufacture was turned to building the more simple 'India' pattern. For the most part, the gun underwent few changes from its introduction until Waterloo, with the exception of the cock, which was altered from the traditional swan-neck style to a sturdier, reinforced version in around 1809. Barrel 39inch overall 54.75 inches long. Musket at present in the workshop being cleaned to remove cosmetic surface deposits [nicotine etc.] As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23466

2995.00 GBP

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